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<正>患者男,51岁,半月前出现左上肢无力,活动后头晕;既往无特殊病史。查体:左挠动脉、肱动脉搏动明显减弱,双上肢收缩压差45 mmHg。经颅多普勒检查:左椎动脉血流反向;CTA:左锁骨下动脉起始部闭塞伴明显纡曲,闭塞段长约14mm(图1)。入院后双联抗血小板治疗3天后,经股动脉穿刺入路行闭塞段开通、球囊扩张及支架成形术。将8F导引导  相似文献   
5.

Introduction

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the health of people living with HIV and has the potential to reduce HIV infectiousness, thereby preventing HIV transmission. However, the success of ART for HIV prevention hinges on sustained ART adherence and avoiding sexually transmitted infections (STI).

Objectives

To determine the sexual behaviours and HIV transmission risks of individuals with suppressed and unsuppressed HIV replication (i.e., viral load).

Methods

Assessed HIV sexual transmission risks among individuals with clinically determined suppressed and unsuppressed HIV. Participants were 760 men and 280 women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, USA, who completed behavioural assessments, 28-daily prospective sexual behaviour diaries, one-month prospective unannounced pill counts for ART adherence, urine screening for illicit drug use and medical record chart abstraction for HIV viral load.

Results

Individuals with unsuppressed HIV demonstrated a constellation of behavioural risks for transmitting HIV to uninfected sex partners that included symptoms of STI and substance use. In addition, 15% of participants with suppressed HIV had recent STI symptoms/diagnoses, indicating significant risks for sexual infectiousness despite their HIV suppression in blood plasma. Overall, 38% of participants were at risk for elevated sexual infectiousness and just as many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse with non-HIV-infected partners.

Conclusions

Implementation strategies for using HIV treatments as HIV prevention requires enhanced behavioural interventions that extend beyond ART to address substance use and sexual health that will otherwise undermine the potential preventive impact of early ART.  相似文献   
6.

Introduction

This article seeks to identify where delays occur along the adult HIV care cascade (“the cascade”), to improve understanding of what constitutes “delay” at each stage of the cascade and how this can be measured across a range of settings and to inform service delivery efforts. Current metrics are reviewed, measures informed by global guidelines are suggested and areas for further clarification are underscored.

Discussion

Questions remain on how best to evaluate late entry into each stage of the cascade. The delayed uptake of HIV testing may be more consistently measured once rapid CD4 testing is administered at the time of HIV testing. For late enrolment, preliminary research has begun to determine how different time intervals for linking to HIV care affect individual health. Regarding treatment, since 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS recommend treatment initiation when CD4 <500 cells/mm3; these guidelines provide a useful albeit evolving threshold to define late treatment initiation. Finally, WHO guidelines for high-, low- and middle-income countries also could be used to standardize measures for achieving viral suppression.

Conclusions

There is no “one size fits all” model as the provision of services may differ based on a range of factors. Nonetheless, measures informed by global guidelines are needed to more consistently evaluate the scope of and factors associated with delays to each stage of the cascade. Doing so will help identify how practitioners can best deliver services and facilitate access to and continued engagement in care.  相似文献   
7.
丁伟  徐雷  杨超群  蒋军健  陆九州  徐建光 《骨科》2015,6(5):231-233
【摘要】目的 探讨采用股前外侧逆行岛状穿支皮瓣修复膝关节周围严重创伤性软组织缺损的疗效。方法 回顾性分析2008年至2012年,我院采用股前外侧逆行岛状穿支皮瓣修复膝关节周围严重创伤性皮肤软组织缺8例,术后观察皮瓣存活情况和恢复情况。结果 除了1例病例边缘小部分坏死,通过换药愈合外,其余皮瓣全部存活,皮瓣质地弹性好,外形满意。术后无明显感染及并发症。结论 采用股前外侧逆行岛状穿支皮瓣修复膝关节周围严重创伤性软组织缺损,具有血供可靠,血管蒂较长等优点,术后疗效满意。  相似文献   
8.
卢建国  杨庆达  苏瑞鉴  梁波  张智钊 《骨科》2015,6(3):149-151
目的 探讨应用改良掌背动脉穿支蒂营养皮瓣修复手指软组织缺损的临床疗效.方法 2008年1月至2014年3月,应用改良掌背动脉穿支蒂营养皮瓣修复85例手指皮肤软组织缺损,按中华医学会手外科学会上肢部分功能评定试用标准评价疗效.结果 85例皮瓣均成活,皮瓣切取面积2.5 cm×1.2 cm~6.3 cm×3.8 cm.2例术后因肿胀引起蒂部卡压,拆除部分缝线后皮瓣肤色逐渐恢复正常,1例术后出现感染,部分边缘坏死,抗感染及换药后愈合.68例获得随访,随访时间6~24个月,获得随访的皮瓣外形及色泽满意,无明显臃肿,重建感觉的皮瓣两点辨别觉恢复至6~10 mm.中华医学会手外科学会上肢部分功能评定试用标准评价:优53例,良10例,可5例,优良率92.6%(63/68).结论 改良掌背动脉穿支蒂营养皮瓣血供可靠,手术操作简单,术后护理简便,感觉、功能恢复良好,易于在基层医院推广.  相似文献   
9.

Introduction

With more people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), the need to detect treatment failure and switch to second-line ART has also increased. We assessed CD4 cell counts (as a marker of treatment failure), determined the rate of switching to second-line treatment and evaluated mortality related to treatment failure among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau.

Methods

In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients infected with HIV-1 receiving ≥6 months of ART at an HIV clinic in Bissau were included from June 2005 to July 2014 and followed until January 2015. Treatment failure was defined as 1) a fall in CD4 count to baseline (or below) or 2) CD4 levels persistently below 100 cells/µL after ≥6 months of ART. Cox hazard models, with time since six months of ART as the time-varying coefficient, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for death and loss to follow-up.

Results

We assessed 1,591 HIV-1-infected patients for immunological treatment failure. Treatment failure could not be determined in 594 patients (37.3%) because of missing CD4 cell counts. Among the remaining 997 patients, 393 (39.4%) experienced failure. Only 39 patients (9.9%) with failure were switched from first- to second-line ART. The overall switching rate was 3.1 per 100 person-years. Mortality rate was higher in patients with than without treatment failure, with adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRRs) 10.0 (95% CI: 0.9–107.8), 7.6 (95% CI: 1.6–35.5) and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5–6.3) in the first, second and following years, respectively. During the first year of follow-up, patients experiencing treatment failure had a higher risk of being lost to follow-up than patients not experiencing treatment failure (adjusted HRR 4.4; 95% CI: 1.7–11.8).

Conclusions

We found a high rate of treatment failure, an alarmingly high number of patients for whom treatment failure could not be assessed, and a low rate of switching to a second-line therapy. These factors could lead to an increased risk of resistance development and excess mortality.  相似文献   
10.

Introduction

Efforts to increase awareness of HIV status have led to growing interest in community-based models of HIV testing. Maximizing the benefits of such programmes requires timely linkage to care and treatment. Thus, an understanding of linkage and its potential barriers is imperative for scale-up.

Methods

This study was conducted in rural South Africa. HIV-positive clients (n=492) identified through home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) were followed up to assess linkage to care, defined as obtaining a CD4 count. Among 359 eligible clients, we calculated the proportion that linked to care within three months. For 226 clients with available data, we calculated the median CD4. To determine factors associated with the rate of linkage, Cox regression was performed on a subsample of 196 clients with additional data on socio-demographic factors and personal characteristics.

Results

We found that 62.1% (95% CI: 55.7 to 68.5%) of clients from the primary sample (n=359) linked to care within three months of HBHCT. Among those who linked, the median CD4 count was 341 cells/mm3 (interquartile range [IQR] 224 to 542 cells/mm3). In the subsample of 196 clients, factors predictive of increased linkage included the following: believing that drugs/supplies were available at the health facility (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.78; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.96); experiencing three or more depression symptoms (aHR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.24 to 3.53); being a caregiver for four or more people (aHR 1.93; 95% CI: 1.07 to 3.47); and knowing someone who died of HIV/AIDS (aHR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.49). Factors predictive of decreased linkage included the following: younger age – 15 to 24 years (aHR 0.50; 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.91); living with two or more adults (aHR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.77); not believing or being unsure about the test results (aHR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.77); difficulty finding time to seek health care (aHR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.67); believing that antiretroviral treatment can make you sick (aHR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.89); and drinking alcohol (aHR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.80).

Conclusions

The findings highlight barriers to linkage following an increasingly popular model of HIV testing. Further, they draw attention to ways in which practical interventions and health education strategies could be used to improve linkage to care.  相似文献   
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