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1.
Researchers have identified that portrayals of mentally ill people as violent and criminal are among the most common depictions of mental illness in the popular media ( Nunnally 1961 , Wahl and Roth 1982 , Day and Page 1986 ). Little attention, however, has been paid to assessing the textual strategies whereby such representations gain currency. This research is interested in investigating the reporting techniques utilised by the popular press including the ways in which power, knowledge and ideology articulates in and through media reports about mental illness. This study draws on Foucault (1972 ) and van Dijk (1998 ), to assess data generated out of a discourse analysis of 195 articles from two major Canadian newspapers over the past decade (1990–1999). Findings suggest that the linkages between criminality and mental illness are achieved through the use of ideological, polarised talk that creates distinctions between Us and Them, as well as through a hierarchy of mental illness. Within the hierarchy of illness, three portrayals are explored including the mentally ill criminal, the passive patient and class based illness depiction. A major finding reveals that, throughout the various representations, a central reporting feature is of mentally ill people as simultaneously rational and irrational. Furthermore, varying degrees of agency are afforded mentally ill subjects on class lines, which has implications for the substantiation of responsibility and blame.  相似文献
2.
BACKGROUND: Because public health education funds are limited, it is important to determine which methods are most effective for promoting healthy lifestyles to communities. We conducted interventions in two communities to further examine the effectiveness of various educational approaches for communicating the "1% Or Less" message to switch from high-fat (whole or 2%) to low-fat (1% or fat-free) milk. METHODS: One intervention used public relations and community-based educational activities in supermarkets, schools, worksites, and other community settings. The other used paid advertising in the absence of other programming. We used telephone surveys and supermarket milk sales data, collected before and after each campaign and in a comparison community, to determine changes in milk-usage patterns. RESULTS: After the campaign of community-based educational programs and public relations activities, the proportion of high-fat milk drinkers who reported drinking low-fat milk was 19.6% compared with 6.8% for the comparison city (p<0.0001). After the advertising-only campaign, 12.8% of high-fat milk drinkers reported drinking low-fat milk (p<0.01). Although supermarkets experienced increases in low-fat milk sales after both campaigns, the results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results show how well-designed public relations activities can attract news coverage and provide further evidence that such coverage can be an important component of health-promotion campaigns. Although the use of paid advertising in the absence of other media or programming appeared to change milk-drinking habits, the results were not sustained after the ads stopped airing.  相似文献
3.
An experiment conducted in the waiting room of a large publicchildren's hospital is reported. The study was designed to evaluatethe efficacy of televized messages to improve parents' knowledgeabout child health, behaviour and accident prevention. The first part of the study concerned the construction of aknowledge test. The coefficient alpha for internal consistencyfor the test was 0.92. Low scoring target groups were identifiedfrom regression of demographic variables on to the respondents'test scores. The education programme was developed in considerationof the deficits of these groups. To assess the effects of the program an experiment was conductedusing a post-test only control group design, incorporating atime delay. Analysis of the results showed substantial increasesin knowledge, up to two months after exposure, especially forgroups which would be expected to show evidence of a ‘knowledgegap’ for educational and socio-economic reasons. In terms of the value that televized material may have for healthpromotion, this study demonstrates that material which is targetedat specific health issues and population groups can have highlybeneficial effects. The value of targeted promotional materialin other areas of health, therefore, should be seriously considered.  相似文献
4.
Regular physical activity has an important role in disease preventionand the promotion of positive health. Population-wide campaignsto promote physical activity are a potentially important healthpromotion strategy to increase participation, but little isknown about their effects. A mass-media campaign, supportedby a range of community events, was conducted by the NationalHeart Foundation (NHF) of Australia in 1990 It comprised televisionadvertising, professional education activities and interviews,promotional materials and community events, and was designedto increase knowledge of the preventive role of physical activityand to encourage the sedentary to start walking. Representativenational population surveys were conducted two weeks beforeand four weeks after the campaign in order to determine theimpact of the campaign on the prevalence of physical activity,with particular emphasis on the prevalence of inactivity andwalking. Approximately 75% of participants in the post-campaignsurvey could recall the campaign message. There were no changesin knowledge about the benefits of physical activity, asprecampaign levels were very high. There zs an increase in theproportion of people aged over 50 who reported walking followingthe campaign, and an increase in the number of times per two-weekperiod that walking was reported. Significant effects upon walkingwere also noted in the least educated group. The campaign wasequally effective for both men and women. Such an outcome isencouraging, given concerns about social inequalities in thedistribution of health risk factors.  相似文献
5.
6.

Objective

This community randomized trial evaluated effects of the Ozioma News Service on the amount and quality of cancer coverage in Black weekly newspapers in 24 U.S. cities.

Method

We created and operated Ozioma, the first cancer information news service specifically for Black newspapers. Over 21 months, Ozioma developed community- and race-specific cancer news releases for each of 12 Black weekly newspapers in intervention communities. Cancer coverage in these papers was tracked before and during the intervention and compared to 12 Black newspapers in control communities.

Results

From 2004 to 2007, we coded 9257 health and cancer stories from 3178 newspaper issues. Intervention newspapers published approximately 4 times the expected number of cancer stories compared to control newspapers (p12,21mo < .01), and also saw an increase in graphics (p12,21mo < .01), local relevance (p12mo = .01), and personal mobilization (p12mo < .10). However, this increased coverage supplanted other health topics and had smaller graphics (NS), had less community mobilization (p21mo = .01), and is less likely to be from a local source (NS).

Conclusion

Providing news releases with localized and race-specific features to minority-serving media outlets can increase the quantity of cancer coverage. Results are mixed for the journalistic and public health quality of this increased cancer coverage in Black newspapers.  相似文献
7.
In September 2008, the human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme was introduced in the UK for schoolgirls aged between 12 and 18 years of age. The vaccine shows high efficacy in preventing infection against HPV types 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer. However, to be most effective, the vaccine needs to be administered before exposure to the viruses and therefore, ideally, before young people become sexually active. The introduction of any new vaccine, and perhaps particularly one given to young teenage girls to prevent a sexually transmitted cancer-causing virus, has the potential to attract a great deal of media attention. This paper reports on content analysis of 344 articles published between January 2005 and December 2008 in 15 UK newspapers. It includes both manifest and latent analysis to examine newsprint media coverage of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme and its role in HPV advocacy. We concluded that the newspapers were generally positive towards the new HPV vaccination and that over the 4 years period the newsworthiness of the HPV vaccination programme increased. In 2008 two events dominated coverage, firstly, the introduction of the HPV programme in September 2008 and secondly, in August 2008 the diagnosis on camera of cervical cancer given to Jade Goody, a 27 year old mother of two, who gained fame and notoriety in the UK through her participation in several reality television shows.  相似文献
8.
The issue of whether it is right to be concerned about the accuracy with which mass media report social scientific research is explored through a detailed case study of media reporting of two surveys of UK doctors’ end-of-life decision-making. Data include press releases, emails and field notes taken during periods of media interest supplemented by a collection of print and broadcast media reports. The case study contributes to existing knowledge about the ways in which mass media establish, exaggerate and otherwise distort the meaning of statistical findings. Journalists ignored findings that did not fit into existing media interest in the ‘assisted dying’ story and were subject to pressure from interest groups concerned to promote their own interpretations and viewpoints. Rogue statistics mutated as they were set loose from their original research report context and were ‘laundered’ as they passed from one media report to another. Yet media accounts of the research, fuelling an already heated public debate about ethical issues in end-of-life care, arguably acted as a conduit for introducing new considerations into this debate, such as the role played by sedation at the end of life, the extent to which euthanasia is practiced outside the law, and the extent of medical opposition to the legalisation of assisted dying. The expectation that accuracy and comprehensiveness should be the sole criteria for judging journalists’ reports is, finally, considered to be unrealistic and it is argued that social scientists need to understand and adapted to the conditions under which mass media reporting operates if they are to succeed in introducing the findings of social research into public debates.  相似文献
9.
Primack BA  Land SR  Fine MJ 《Public health》2008,122(4):379-389
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media after controlling for multiple relevant covariates. METHODS: A survey of all adolescents at a large suburban high school assessed: (1) current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking; (2) volume of exposure to various media; and (3) covariates related to smoking. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed relationships between each of the independent variables (media exposures) and the two smoking outcomes after controlling for covariates. RESULTS: Of the 1138 respondents, 19% (n=216) reported current smoking. Forty percent (n=342) of the non-smokers (n=922) were susceptible to future smoking. Students reported exposure to an average of 8.6 (standard deviation 5.1)h of media daily, including 2.6h of music. Those with high exposure to films and music were more likely to be smokers (P(trend)=0.036 and P(trend)<0.001, respectively), and those with high exposure to books were less likely to be smokers (P(trend)<0.001). After controlling for all relevant covariates, those with high exposure to music had greater odds of being smokers than those with low exposure [odds ratio (OR) 1.90, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10-3.30], and those with high exposure to books had lower odds of being current smokers (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.94). CONCLUSION: Exposure to films and music are associated with smoking, but only the relationship between music exposure and smoking persists after rigorous covariate control. Exposure to books is associated with lower odds of smoking.  相似文献
10.
本文采用内容分析与文本分析相结合的研究方法,选取《人民日报》、《经济观察报》、《中国青年报》、《京华时报》四种报纸2009年4月-2011年12月的新医改实践报道作为研究对象,对新医改意见中五项重点改革进行纵向深入分析,内容包括报道改革进展、对医改实施情况进行监督及提供探讨解决问题的意见。研究发现,大众媒介对医改报道呈现出报道频率高、重视新举措、议题指向鲜明和官员、医卫人员掌控更多话语权的特点。在纵向深入分析过程中,公立医院改革及基本药物制度建立两项议题存在较多问题,因此在完善医改方案的讨论中各方也着重偏向这两项议题。  相似文献
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