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We report a 51‐year‐old female patient with adult‐onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) who had a history of pancreatoduodenectomy for duodenal somatostatinoma with metastases to regional lymph nodes at age 49 years, paying special attention to indications for liver transplantation. At age 50 years, she developed hepatic encephalopathy with elevation of plasma ammonia and citrulline levels. A diagnosis of CTLN2 was made by DNA analysis of the SLC25A13 gene and treatment with conservative therapies was begun, including a low‐carbohydrate diet and supplementation with arginine and sodium pyruvate. However, despite these treatments, frequent attacks of encephalopathy occurred with markedly elevated plasma ammonia levels. While we were apprehensive regarding the risk of recurrence of somatostatinoma due to immunosuppressive therapy after liver transplantation, the patient was in a critical condition with CTLN2 and it was decided to perform living‐donor liver transplantation using a graft obtained from her son. Her postoperative clinical course was uneventful and she has had an active life without recurrence of somatostatinoma for 2 years. This is the first case of CTLN2 with somatostatinoma. As the condition of CTLN2 patients with rapidly progressive courses is often intractable by conservative therapies alone, liver transplantation should be considered even after surgery for malignant tumors in cases with neither metastasis nor recurrence.  相似文献   
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A complex regulatory package is likely to be necessary to effectively reduce obesity prevalence in developed countries. This study investigated the barriers and facilitators to implementing regulatory interventions to prevent obesity within the executive arm of the Australian Commonwealth Government. Policy reviews were conducted on nine government departments to understand their roles and interests in obesity. From this process we identified regulatory review carried out by the Office of Best Practice Regulation as possibly posing a barrier to law reform for obesity prevention, along with the complexity of the food policymaking structures. The policy reviews informed subsequent in‐depth semi‐structured interviews with senior Commonwealth government officers (n = 13) focused on refining our understanding of the barriers to enacting obesity prevention policy. In addition to the two barriers already identified, interviewees identified a lack of evidence for interventions, which would reduce obesity prevalence, and the influence of politicians on executive decisions as posing obstacles. Most interviewees believed that the barriers to regulating to prevent obesity were strong and that intervention by elected politicians would be the most likely method of implementing obesity prevention policy.  相似文献   
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The increased prevalence of obesity has made the use of dietary supplements as weight reducing agents highly popular, but their efficacy has not been proven. One such supplement is chromium. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of chromium supplementation in overweight and obese individuals. Electronic searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. The bibliographies of located articles were also searched. No age, gender or language restrictions were imposed. The reporting quality of identified randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was assessed using a methodological checklist adapted from the Consolidated Standard of Reporting Trials Statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses guidelines. Thirty‐nine trials were identified and 20 were included. There were variations in reporting quality of included studies. A meta‐analysis of 11 studies showed a statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring chromium over placebo (mean difference (MD): ?0.50 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.97, ?0.03). There was a high statistical heterogeneity. Adverse events included watery stools, vertigo, headaches and urticaria. The evidence from available RCTs shows that chromium supplementation generates statistically significant reductions in body weight. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should last at least 16 weeks and greater uniformity in the measuring and assessment tools for body composition is recommended.  相似文献   
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