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Medication errors are an iatrogenic threat to patient safety, and recently graduated Junior Medical Officers (JMOs) are a common source of these errors. A ward‐based, physician‐led, small‐group interactive teaching session was developed to improve JMOs competence in prescribing. The ability of JMOs to detect problems in mock medication charts before and after the teaching session was assessed, with the majority improving after the intervention, a result sustained on re‐testing later in the year. The teaching sessions were well received by JMOs.  相似文献   
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The increased prevalence of obesity has made the use of dietary supplements as weight reducing agents highly popular, but their efficacy has not been proven. One such supplement is chromium. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of chromium supplementation in overweight and obese individuals. Electronic searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. The bibliographies of located articles were also searched. No age, gender or language restrictions were imposed. The reporting quality of identified randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was assessed using a methodological checklist adapted from the Consolidated Standard of Reporting Trials Statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses guidelines. Thirty‐nine trials were identified and 20 were included. There were variations in reporting quality of included studies. A meta‐analysis of 11 studies showed a statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring chromium over placebo (mean difference (MD): ?0.50 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?0.97, ?0.03). There was a high statistical heterogeneity. Adverse events included watery stools, vertigo, headaches and urticaria. The evidence from available RCTs shows that chromium supplementation generates statistically significant reductions in body weight. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should last at least 16 weeks and greater uniformity in the measuring and assessment tools for body composition is recommended.  相似文献   
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore the significance of the mealtime experience among residents of nursing homes in Spain. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was followed. An initial purposeful sampling of Spanish residents in for‐profit nursing homes in the southern area of Madrid was carried out. A theoretical sampling was also implemented in order to gain a more in‐depth understanding of dependence. Inclusion criteria for nursing home residents were: age (60 years or older) and lack of any cognitive impairment. Data were collected using unstructured and semistructured interviews. Data collection was concluded once theoretical saturation was reached, and the data were analysed using the Giorgi proposal. Results: A total of 26 residents with a mean age of 83 years were included. Three main themes that describe the significance of meals in nursing homes emerged from the data: (i) timing of the meals – mealtimes serve as a point of reference for organizing activities in the nursing home and orient the residents during the day; (ii) table allocation – table allocation depends on the judgment of the personnel, the behavior of each resident and on the input from the residents that use a table; and (iii) the meals themselves – food is experienced as a privilege, as a sign of autonomy and normality, and as an indicator of personal identity. Conclusion: Understanding the social significance of meals for residents in nursing homes would provide deeper insight into resident expectations. This will in turn help to improve service and quality of life for residents. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2013; 13: 482–489 .  相似文献   
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To reduce study start‐up time, increase data sharing, and assist investigators conducting clinical studies, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke embarked on an initiative to create common data elements for neuroscience clinical research. The Common Data Element Team developed general common data elements, which are commonly collected in clinical studies regardless of therapeutic area, such as demographics. In the present project, we applied such approaches to data collection in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a neurological disorder that involves multiple organ systems. To develop FRDA common data elements, FRDA experts formed a working group and subgroups to define elements in the following: ataxia and performance measures; biomarkers; cardiac and other clinical outcomes; and demographics, laboratory tests, and medical history. The basic development process included identification of international experts in FRDA clinical research, meeting by teleconference to develop a draft of standardized common data elements recommendations, vetting of recommendations across the subgroups, and dissemination of recommendations to the research community for public comment. The full recommendations were published online in September 2011 at http://www.commondataelements.ninds.nih.gov/FA.aspx . The subgroups′ recommendations are classified as core, supplemental, or exploratory. Template case report forms were created for many of the core tests. The present set of data elements should ideally lead to decreased initiation time for clinical research studies and greater ability to compare and analyze data across studies. Their incorporation into new, ongoing studies will be assessed in an ongoing fashion to define their utility in FRDA. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society  相似文献   
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Autopsy is the diagnostic gold standard for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Society for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (NINDS‐SPSP) criteria for the clinical diagnosis of “probable” PSP are thought to possess high specificity and low sensitivity. The NINDS‐SPSP criteria for “possible” PSP are considered to increase sensitivity at the expense of specificity. The Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndromes (NNIPPS) criteria are intended to improve sensitivity while maintaining high specificity. The aim of this study was to conduct a clinicopathological evaluation of the NINDS‐SPSP and NNIPPS criteria in tertiary neurological centers. Defined clinical features and their year of onset were recorded by chart review in neuropathologically diagnosed patients with PSP, Parkinsons's disease (PD), MSA parkinsonism and corticobasal degeneration from four European brain banks. Fulfilment of the clinical diagnostic criteria was verified for each year after disease onset and for the final antemortem record. We analyzed 98 PSP patients and 46 disease controls. The NINDS‐SPSP “probable” criteria yielded shorter time to diagnosis, slightly higher specificity and positive predictive value (PPV), and similar sensitivity, compared with the NNIPPS criteria. Unexpectedly, the NINDS‐SPSP “possible” criteria yielded the lowest sensitivity, specificity, and PPV. A combination of NINDS‐SPSP possible and probable criteria yielded the highest sensitivity. We suggest that the NINDS‐SPSP probable criteria might be preferred for recruitment of patients for clinical trials, where an early and specific diagnosis is important. For routine clinical care, where high sensitivity is crucial, a combination of NINDS possible and probable criteria might be preferred. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society  相似文献   
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Numerous scales assess dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD), variably focusing on anatomical distribution, phenomenology, time, severity, and disability. No study has compared these scales and their relative ability to detect change related to an established treatment. We conducted a randomized placebo‐controlled trial of amantadine, assessing dyskinesia at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks using the following scales: Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS), Lang‐Fahn Activities of Daily Living Dyskinesia Rating Scale (LF), 26‐Item Parkinson's Disease Dyskinesia scale (PDD‐26), patient diaries, modified Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS), Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale (RDRS), dyskinesia items from the Movement Disorder Society–sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS‐UPDRS), and Clinical Global Impression (severity and change: CGI‐S, CGI‐C). Scale order was randomized at each visit, but raters were aware of each scale as it was administered. Sensitivity to treatment was assessed using effect size. Sixty‐one randomized dyskinetic PD subjects (31 amantadine, 30 placebo) completed the study. Four of the 8 scales (CGI‐C, LF, PDD‐26, and UDysRS) detected a significant treatment. The UDysRS Total Score showed the highest effect size (η2 = 0.138) for detecting treatment‐related change, with all other scales having effect sizes < 0.1. No scale was resistant to placebo effects. This study resolves 2 major issues useful for future testing of new antidyskinesia treatments: among tested scales, the UDysRS, having both subjective and objective dyskinesia ratings, is superior for detecting treatment effects; and the magnitude of the UDysRS effect size from amantadine sets a clear standard for comparison for new agents. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society  相似文献   
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