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目的 探讨膝骨关节炎( OA )患者髌骨下脂肪垫( IPFP)大小与软骨缺损之间的关系. 方法 收集174例膝OA患者,对患者一般情况行问卷调查,在核磁共振3D脂肪抑制T1加权回波序列上利用Osirix软件测量IPFP容积,在核磁共振T2加权质子密度加权快速自旋回波序列上对软骨缺损进行评级(0~4级),分析IPFP容积与软骨缺损之间的关系. 结果 放射性OA与非放射性OA患者IPFP体积差异无统计学意义;不同严重程度OA患者的IPFP体积差异有统计学意义(P<0. 05);OA患者IPFP体积与性别呈负相关性,与身高、体重呈正相关性,差异有统计学意义(P <0. 05);IPFP体积与膝关节内外侧股骨、外侧胫骨以及髌骨软骨缺损呈负相关性,差异有统计学意义( P<0. 05 ). 结论IPFP体积与软骨缺损及OA的病情严重程度相关, IPFP在OA发生发展中可能起保护作用.  相似文献   
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Vision is the sense that we use to navigate the world around us. Thus it is not surprising that blindness is one of people's most feared maladies. Heritable diseases of the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, are the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, collectively affecting as many as one-third of all people over the age of 75, to some degree. For decades, scientists have dreamed of preventing vision loss or of restoring the vision of patients affected with retinal degeneration through drug therapy, gene augmentation or a cell-based transplantation approach. In this review we will discuss the use of the induced pluripotent stem cell technology to model and develop various treatment modalities for the treatment of inherited retinal degenerative disease. We will focus on the use of iPSCs for interrogation of disease pathophysiology, analysis of drug and gene therapeutics and as a source of autologous cells for cell transplantation and replacement.  相似文献   
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Resident microglial cells can be regarded as the immunological watchdogs of the brain and the retina. They are active sensors of their neuronal microenvironment and rapidly respond to various insults with a morphological and functional transformation into reactive phagocytes. There is strong evidence from animal models and in situ analyses of human tissue that microglial reactivity is a common hallmark of various retinal degenerative and inflammatory diseases. These include rare hereditary retinopathies such as retinitis pigmentosa and X-linked juvenile retinoschisis but also comprise more common multifactorial retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and uveitis as well as neurological disorders with ocular manifestation. In this review, we describe how microglial function is kept in balance under normal conditions by cross-talk with other retinal cells and summarize how microglia respond to different forms of retinal injury. In addition, we present the concept that microglia play a key role in local regulation of complement in the retina and specify aspects of microglial aging relevant for chronic inflammatory processes in the retina. We conclude that this resident immune cell of the retina cannot be simply regarded as bystander of disease but may instead be a potential therapeutic target to be modulated in the treatment of degenerative and inflammatory diseases of the retina.  相似文献   
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Microfracture repair tissue in young adult humans and in rabbit trochlea is frequently of higher quality than in corresponding ovine or horse models or in the rabbit medial femoral condyle (MFC). This may be related to differences in subchondral properties since repair is initiated from the bone. We tested the hypothesis that subchondral bone from rabbit trochlea and the human MFC are structurally similar. Trochlea and MFC samples from rabbit, sheep, and horse were micro‐CT scanned and histoprocessed. Samples were also collected from normal and lesional areas of human MFC. The subchondral bone of the rabbit trochlea was the most similar to human MFC, where both had a relatively thin bone plate and a more porous and less dense character of subchondral bone. MFC from animals all displayed thicker bone plates, denser and less porous bone and thicker trabeculae, which may be more representative of older or osteoarthritic patients, while both sheep trochlear ridges and the horse lateral trochlea shared some structural features with human MFC. Since several cartilage repair procedures rely on subchondral bone for repair, subchondral properties should be accounted for when choosing animal models to study and test procedures that are intended for human cartilage repair. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:63–70, 2015.
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椎间盘退变与细胞死亡的相关研究进展   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
腰椎间盘退行性变被认为是临床下腰痛的重要原因,其分子机制尚未明确.近年来,椎间盘退变的分子基础研究已经成为热门.椎间盘独特的生理结构和生物力学特性导致了它易于退变的特点.椎间盘退变开始与椎间盘细胞学行为的改变有关,包括细胞死亡的增加和细胞外基质的降解.然而,在退变椎间盘中的细胞死亡机制仍不明确,主要包括细胞凋亡和自噬.对椎间盘退变分子机制的深入研究能够为将来进一步改善和治疗椎闻盘退变打下基础.虽然椎间盘退变的生物学研究方面已经取得了一定的进展,但是椎间盘本身的生物环境对生物学治疗的发展仍具有挑战性.  相似文献   
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