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1.
The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development – 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) was updated to enhance its usefulness for contemporary child developmental assessment. However, recent data in Western countries have implicated the overestimation of child development by the new instrument. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric features of the Bayley-III for term and preterm infants in Taiwan. Forty-seven term infants and 167 preterm infants were prospectively examined with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development – 2nd Edition (BSID-II) and the Bayley-III at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity). The psychometric properties examined included reliability, construct validity, and known-group validity. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley-III were good to excellent. The correlations between the BSID-II and Bayley-III raw scores were good to excellent for the cognitive and motor items and low to excellent for the language items. Term infants achieved higher composite scores than preterm infants on all of the Bayley-III scales (p < 0.05). However, their rates of developmental delay were lower than the previously established prevalence estimates. The Bayley-III cut-off composite score was adjusted 10–20, 1–13, and 12–24 points higher than 70 for optimal prediction of cognitive, language, and motor delay, respectively, as defined by the BSID-II index score < 70. The Bayley-III is a reliable instrument that extends its previous edition, especially in early language assessment. However, the upward adjustment of its cut-off score is recommended for the accurate identification of developmental delay in term and preterm Taiwanese infants.  相似文献   
2.
Previous studies of motor laterality in dogs have produced some conflicting results, with inconsistencies in lateral biases across sexes, over time, and across tasks. The current study modified published food-retrieval and tape-removal tests before applying them to 43 dogs. It showed that results derived from 50 observations of a food-retrieval task (Kong? test) were consistent with 100 observations. Further, observations during both Kong? and the tape-removal tests were consistent both within and between observers. Lateralisation results from both the Kong? and Tape tests were generally consistent between breeds and sexes and over time, the only exceptions being the categorical groups during the Tape test and the strength of lateralisation in the Kong? test. Of greatest interest in this study was the lack of consistency between results from the two different motor lateralisation tasks conducted. Given that motor lateralisation is said to reflect differences in brain structure or function, differences in task results may indicate differing complexities of the two tasks.  相似文献   
3.
Purpose. Balance rehabilitation is an important component of the retraining program in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Measuring balance is fundamental for an accurate assessment and therapy selection. The aim of this study was to compare interrater and test-retest reliability of the Berg Balance Scale, the Dynamic Gait Index, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence.

Method. A group of 25 persons were enrolled in the study. The group consisted of 8 males and 17 females, mean age 41.7 years (12.5 years, SD). The onset of pathology was 8.7 years (8.8 years SD) before the beginning of the study. To assess the test-retest reliability two consecutive assessments were collected by the same rater. To assess the inter-rater reliability persons were concurrently assessed by two raters.

Results. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) for interrater reliability ranged between 0.94 and 0.96. The ICCs for test-retest reliability ranged between 0.85 and 0.96.

Conclusion. The inter-rater reliability of the instruments proved to be satisfactory. Lower but acceptable results were obtained for the test-retest paradigm. The data obtained in this study suggest that these scales are reliable tools for assessing balance function in persons suffering from MS.  相似文献   
4.
This study seeks to improve the mechanical performance of stents by conducting reliability performance testing and finite element method (FEM)‐based simulations for coronary stents. Three commercially available stent designs and our own new design were tested to measure the factors affecting performance, specifically foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility. The stents used in the present experiments were 3 mm in working diameter and 18 mm of working length. The results of the experiments indicate that the foreshortening of stents A, B, C, and our new design, D, was equivalent to 2.25, 0.67, 0.46, and 0.41%, respectively. The recoil of stents A, B, C, and D was 6.00, 4.35, 3.50, and 4.36%, respectively. Parallel plate radial force measurements were A, 3.72 ± 0.28 N; B, 3.81 ± 0.32 N; C, 4.35 ± 0.18 N; and D, 4.02 ± 0.24 N. Radial forces determined by applying uniform pressure in the circumferential direction were A, 28.749 ± 0.81 N; B, 32.231 ± 1.80 N; C, 34.522 ± 3.06 N; and D, 42.183 ± 2.84 N. The maximum force of crimped stent at 2.2‐mm deflection was 1.01 ± 0.08 N, 0.82 ± 0.08 N, 0.92 ± 0.12 N, and 0.68 ± 0.07 N for each of stents A, B, C and D. The results of this study enabled us to identify several factors to enhance the performance of stents. In comparing these stents, we found that our design, stent D, which was designed by a collaborative team from seven universities, performed better than the commercial stents across all parameter of foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility.  相似文献   
5.
目的 了解医学生社交网络使用情况,制定社交网络使用情况量表(social networking using status scale,SNUSS)并对其信效度进行评价。方法 在2018年3月采取整群抽样的方法进行问卷调查,回收有效问卷665份。在间隔2个月后对46名受试对象进行量表的重测。采用因子分析、相关分析、t检验等计算量表的结构效度和内容效度以评价量表效度,采用内部一致性信度、折半信度和重测信度评价量表的信度。结果 探索性因子分析,分析结果量表为2个维度:维持现有社会关系社交网络使用情况维度(维持维度)和拓宽朋友圈社交网络使用情况维度(拓宽维度)。验证性因子显示,各条目因子负荷值大于0.500(P<0.05),该模型拟合情况优良(χ2/df=2.873,GFI=0.970,CFI=0.971,RMSEA=0.074)。领悟社会支持量表与社交网络使用情况量表相关系数r为0.295,条目水平的内容效度均等于0.90,量表水平的内容效度为0.90,内部一致性信度为0.764,折半信度为0.555,重测信度为0.526。结论 SNUSS在医学生群体中对于社交网络使用情况有良好的信度和效度,且与感知的社会支持有相关性。  相似文献   
6.
目的 探讨影像专科护士核心能力评价指标的构建、信效度检验分析。方法 首先成立研究小组查阅相关文献资料,经过研究小组成员反复讨论并邀请影像专科护士讨论、修改、完善评价指标体系框架,形成影像专科护士核心能力评价指标体系专家咨询问卷。通过两轮专家咨询构建影像专科护士核心能力评价指标体系,并以构建的指标体系为依据编制问卷调查表。采用问卷调查的方法验证本研究所构建的影像专科护士核心能力评价指标体系的合理性和科学性。结果 构建的影像专科护士核心能力评价指标体系包括3个一级指标、20个二级指标和48个三级指标。评价指标体系总体Cronbach’s α系数为0.972,一级指标影像专科护理理论知识、影像专科护士护理实践技能、相关能力的Cronbach’s α系数分别为0.915、0.934、0.924。指标体系总体内容效度(content validity index,CVI)指数(S-CVI)为0.977,各条目的内容效度指数(I-CVI)为0.812~1.000。一级指标与指标体系总体相关系数为0.800~0.936(P<0.05),二级指标与相应一级指标相关系数为0.562~0.972(P<0.05),三级指标与相应一级指标的相关系数为0.362~0.914(P<0.05)。结论 构建的影像专科护士核心能力评价指标问卷信度良好,内部结构一致,具有较好的可行性、可靠性、合理性和科学性,为影像专科护士核心能力培养考核和评价提供了理论依据和实践指南。  相似文献   
7.
This study focussed on self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users. The objectives of the experiment were changes in self-report outcome over time, and relationships between different subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction. Four outcome inventories and a questionnaire on auditory lifestyle were administered to 25 hearing-aid users repeatedly after hearing-aid fitting, and assessments took place one week, four weeks, and 13 weeks after hearing-aid provision. The results showed that, for first-time users who used their hearing aids more than four hours per day, self-reported outcome increased over 13 weeks in some scales, although there was no change in amplification during this time. Furthermore, it was found that, for data collected immediately post-fitting, some subscales were much less face valid than for data collected later. This result indicates that the way in which hearing-aid users assess outcome changes over time. The practical consequence of the results is that early self-report outcome assessment may be misleading for some self-report outcome schemes.

Sumario

El estudio se enfocó en los resultados auto-reportados en nuevos usuarios de auxiliares auditivos (AA). Los objetivos del experimento fueron los cambios en los resultados auto-reportados en el tiempo y las relaciones entre las diferentes mediciones subjetivas de beneficio y satisfacción. Se aplicaron cuatro inventarios de resultados y un cuestionario sobre estilo de vida auditivo a 25 usuarios de AAdespués de la adaptación; la evaluación tuvo lugar una, cuatro y trece semanas después. Los resultados muestran que para los nuevos usuarios que utilizan su AA más de 4 horas al día, los resultados auto-reportados mejoran en algunas escalas en el curso de 13 semanas, aun cuando no hubiera cambio en la amplificación durante este tiempo. Incluso, se encontró que los datos colectados inmediatamente después de la adaptación, fueron menos válidos que los colectados posteriormente. Estos resultados indican que la forma en que los usuarios evalúan los resultados, cambia con el tiempo. La consecuencia práctica es que los resultados auto-reportados tempranamente pueden ser engañosos en algunos esquemas de resultados auto-reportados.  相似文献   
8.
9.
The individual alpha frequency (IAF) of the human EEG reflects systemic properties of the brain, is highly heritable, and relates to cognitive functioning. Not much is known about the modifiability of IAF by cognitive interventions. We report analyses of resting EEG from a large‐scale training study in which healthy younger (20–31 years, N = 30) and older (65–80 years, N = 28) adults practiced 12 cognitive tasks for ~100 1‐h sessions. EEG was recorded before and after the cognitive training intervention. In both age groups, IAF (and, in a control analysis, alpha amplitude) did not change, despite large gains in cognitive performance. As within‐session reliability and test‐retest stability were high for both age groups, imprecise measurements cannot account for the findings. In sum, IAF is highly stable in healthy adults up to 80 years, not easily modifiable by cognitive interventions alone, and thus qualifies as a stable neurophysiological trait marker.  相似文献   
10.
The reliability, stability, and signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) of event‐related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in children, adolescents, younger adults, and older adults in performance monitoring tasks. P2, N2, P3, and P2‐N2 peak‐to‐peak amplitude showed high odd‐even split reliabilities in all age groups, ranging from.70 to.90. Multigroup analyses showed that test‐retest stabilities (across 2 weeks) of ERP amplitudes did not differ among the four age groups. In contrast, relative to adolescents and younger adults, SNRs were lower in children and older adults, with higher noise levels in children and lower signal power in older adults. We conclude that age differences in the SNR of stimulus‐locked ERPs can be successfully compensated by the averaging procedure with about 40 trials in the average. However, age differences in baseline noise and split‐half reliability should be considered when comparing age groups in single trial measures or time‐varying processes with ERPs.  相似文献   
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