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1.
临床医学生睡眠质量及其影响因素的分析   总被引:19,自引:1,他引:18  
目的 探讨临床医学生睡眠质量现状及其与心理健康状况、生活事件、应对方式和个性等因素的相互关系。方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数 (PSQI)、症状自评量表 (SCL 90 )、青少年生活事件量表、应对方式问卷及艾森克个性问卷 ,对中山大学 4 5 0名一、三、五年级的临床医学生进行测查。结果 睡眠问题检出率 17 8% ,三年级睡眠质量较差 ,生活事件应激值、应对方式 ,N、E量表分、SCL 90总均分与睡眠质量呈显著相关 ,各因子间也存在一些显著性相关 ,多元回归分析提示 :学习压力、N分、SCL 90总均分和积极应对分对睡眠质量有显著预测作用。结论 就临床医学生睡眠质量而言 ,生活事件、个性、心理健康状况和应对方式对其既有直接影响又存在交互作用。  相似文献
2.
精神科护士心理健康状况与应付方式的相关因素分析   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
目的 探讨精神科护士心理健康状况及影响其应付方式的相关因素。方法 应用症状自评量表(SCL - 90 )、应付方式问卷及艾森克个性问卷对 2 88名精神科护士进行评定。结果 精神科护士SCL 90各因子分均高于国内常模 ,躯体化、人际关系敏感、焦虑和敌对四项因子有显著性差异 (P <0 .0 1) ,应付方式与个性心理特征相关性较大 ,与年龄、护龄不呈线性关系 ,与是否倒班无关。 4 - 8年护龄的护士应用解决问题应付方式比其他护龄组明显减少。结论 应加强对精神科护士心理疏导 ,尤其是对工作 4 - 8年护士应付方式的指导。  相似文献
3.
自我和谐与应付方式的关系探讨   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
目的以医科大学生为对象探讨自我和谐与应付方式之间的关系。方法应用自我和谐量表和应付方式问卷对106名医科大学生进行评价。根据自我和谐量表评分分为低自我和谐程度组和高自我和谐程度组,对两组应付方式进行比较,并对自我和谐各因子与各应付方式进行相关分析。结果低自我和谐程度大学生组的应付方式中,解决问题、求助方式显著低于高自我和谐程度大学生组(P<0.05),而自责、幻想、退避、合理化方式则显著高于高自我和谐组(P<0.05或P<0.01);自我与经验的不和谐与各应付方式均有显著相关(P<0.05或<0.01),自我的灵活性与解决问题方式成正相关(P<0.01),自我的刻板性与合理化方式成正相关(P<0.05)。结论大学生自我和谐程度与所采用的应付方式之间密切相关。  相似文献
4.
抑郁症的社会支持和防御方式研究   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
目的 探讨抑郁症患者应激状态、应对行为、社会支持和防御方式的临床特征。方法 采用应对行为调查表、生活环境调查表、社会支持量表和防御方式问卷 ,对 4 1例抑郁症患者进行测试 ,并与 36例正常人进行对照研究。结果  (1)抑郁症组平均应激强度明显高于对照组 (P <0 .0 5 ) ,且抑郁症组面对应激时所采取的应对行为与对照组存在显著差异 ,主动娱乐、谋划对策、主动应付和工作投射因子分高 (P <0 .0 1) ,控制症状和消极发泄因子分低 (P <0 .0 1或P <0 .0 5 ) ;(2 )抑郁症组的社会支持满意度明显低于对照组 (P <0 .0 5 ) ,且抑郁症组对“亲属”的选用明显高于对照组 (P <0 .0 1) ;(3)抑郁症组中间型和不成熟型防御因子分高 (P <0 .0 1) ,投射、幻想、退缩因子 ,假性利他、隔离、交往倾向和消耗倾向因子分也明显高于对照组 (P <0 .0 1或P <0 .0 5 )。结论  (1)生活事件与抑郁症状的发生可能存在直接的关系 ,且抑郁症患者面对应激更多采取外射型应对方式 ;(2 )抑郁症患者的社会支持系统满意度差 ,且防御方式存在明显的不成熟倾向。  相似文献
5.
Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts stressor susceptibility, the present study examined line differences in response to a chronic stressor. Chronic psychosocial stress was evoked using two paradigms. In the first paradigm, a SAL or LAL male was living in sensory contact (except tactile contact) with a dominant SAL male for 25 days (sensory contact stress). In the second paradigm, a SAL or LAL male was, in addition to the first paradigm, defeated by a SAL male for 21 consecutive days (defeat stress). The sensory contact stressor induced in LAL mice chronic body weight loss and increased plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels compared to SAL mice and increased corticosterone levels, thymus involution and lower hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) : glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ratio compared to LAL controls. The defeat stressor increased corticosterone secretion and caused adrenal hypertrophy and thymus involution in both mouse lines. Defeated LAL mice showed long-lasting body weight loss and higher corticosterone concentrations than SAL mice and lower hippocampal MR : GR ratio and decreased immobility behaviour in the forced swimming test than LAL controls. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression was higher in defeated SAL than in controls. The present data show that both stress paradigms induced line-dependent physiological and neuroendocrine changes, but that the sensory contact stressor produced chronic stress symptoms in LAL mice only. This latter stress paradigm therefore seems promising to analyse the role of genetic factors in the individual differences in stress-related psychopathology.  相似文献
6.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the Self-Regulatory Model (SRM) of illness behaviour [Leventhal J, Meyer D, Nerenz D. The common-sense representation of illness danger. In: Rachman S, editor. Medical psychology. New York (NY): Pergamon, 1980, pp. 27-30.] as a framework for explaining prehospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHOD: Data were collected from 61 patients with confirmed AMI regarding demographics, clinical history, distance from hospital and components of the SRM. RESULTS: The median time from onset of symptoms to arrival at Accident and Emergency (A&E) was 4 h 4 min. A hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the components of the SRM explained 37% of the variance in prehospital patient delay. Males who viewed a heart attack as having serious consequences and who adopted an active-cognitive and problem-focused coping response to their symptoms had the shortest delay times. CONCLUSION: The SRM is a useful framework for partially explaining patient delay. There are, however, complex interactions between the physical manifestation of pain and symptomatology and patient response. Patients' perceptions of the severity of the consequences of an AMI appear to override the effects of an individual's emotional response to the acute event. Interventions should teach patients the skills associated with active-cognitive and problem-focused coping and take account of gender differences in their design.  相似文献
7.
Predicting psychological distress in patients with leukaemia and lymphoma   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
This study examines the relationship between coping style, quality of life (QOL) and psychological distress in a sample of patients with leukaemia and lymphoma. Fifty-one consecutive in-patients, day cases and haematology out-patient attenders entered the study and completed a 10-item self-report questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MACS) and the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQOL). Fifty-one percent of patients reached caseness for moderate distress. Fourteen percent of patients reached caseness for severe distress. Twenty-seven percent of patients were identified as having adjusted poorly to their diagnosis having low scores on the Fighting Spirit subscale of the MAC and high scores on the Hopeless/Helpless subscale. There was a significant association between patients who scored highly on the HADS and dissatisfaction with the information provided. Use of a logistic regression model showed that those patients most likely to be suffering from severe psychological distress were those with a worse coping style, measured by MAC. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.  相似文献
8.
2型糖尿病患者的心理健康状况及其影响因素   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
目的 了解2型糖尿病患者的心理健康水平及其影响因素。方法 随机选取21例2型糖尿病患者,采用症状自评量表(SCL-90),艾森克个性问卷(EPQ),应付方式问卷,社会支持评定量表(SSRS),生活质量综合评定问卷(GQOLI-74)进行评定,同全国常模进行对照和分析。结果 调查组的躯体化症状,人际关系敏感,抑郁因子分显著高于全国常模组;以SCL-90总分160分为界将调查组分为高分组和低分组,其中在EPQ的P分,N分及应付方式的退避分上有统计学意义上的差异。结论 2型糖尿病患者存在着一定的心理健康问题,且与患者的个性特征。应付方式有关。  相似文献
9.
Objective: A significant proportion of breast cancer patients experiences psychiatric morbidity in the first year after a breast cancer diagnosis and/or beginning of treatment. This study attempted to identify and understand the risk factors for developing such problems. Methods: A consecutive series of 87 patients, aged 40–75 years, was assessed prior to diagnosis of breast cancer and followed-up approximately 8 weeks after beginning of cancer treatment and again 9 months after first follow-up. Assessments included measures of psychiatric morbidity using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), coping style using the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scale, symptom attribution, beliefs about breast cancer, social support, socio-demographic and clinical variables. Results: A total of 85.1% of patients completed both follow-ups. Pre-diagnostically, 32.2% of breast cancer patients scored as a GHQ-12 ‘case.’ GHQ scores fell significantly between pre-diagnostic and both post-diagnostic assessments, especially in women who had thought they had cancer. Predictors of psychological morbidity at first follow-up included pre-diagnostic GHQ-12 score, lack of social support and feelings of ‘personal responsibility/avoidance.’ GHQ-12 ‘caseness’ at second follow-up was predicted by lack of social support alone. Conclusions: Overall, psychiatric morbidity is higher prior to, than following, a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer. Early reactions of this kind are predictive of post-treatment adjustment. However, only the presence of social support in this study seems to be associated with successful adjustment in the first year following a breast cancer diagnosis. Women at increased risk of psychological morbidity after a breast cancer diagnosis may be thus identifiable and targeted therapeutically.  相似文献
10.
抑郁症患者应付方式特点研究   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
目的:了解抑郁症患者的应付方式特点及对抑郁症状作用。方法:对184例患者,平分为研究组(药物治疗+应付方式指导)和对照组(单纯药物治疗),治疗2个月。于治疗前和治疗后分别采用应付方式问卷和汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定应付方式与疾病的严重程度和疗效。结果:抑郁症患者所选择的应付方式主要是自责、退避和幻想,而相对较少使用解决问题、合理化和求助;抑郁症状的严重程度与应付方式各因子除合理化相关性不明显外,与其余因子均存在显著相关。治疗后研究组与对照组应付方式各因子比较除合理化因子外差异均有显著性(P〈0.01-0.05)。结论:应付方式影响抑郁症状,通过应付方式指导可以提高抑郁症治疗效果。  相似文献
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