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Introduction

Within monocyte-derived macrophages, HIV-1 accumulates in intracellular virus-containing compartments (VCCs) that are inaccessible to the external environment, which implicate these cells as latently infected HIV-1 reservoirs. During mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, human placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells (HCs)) are viral targets, and have been shown to be infected in vivo and sustain low levels of viral replication in vitro; however, the risk of in utero transmission is less than 7%. The role of these primary macrophages as viral reservoirs is largely undefined. The objective of this study is to define potential sites of viral assembly, accumulation and neutralization in HCs given the pivotal role of the placenta in preventing HIV-1 infection in the mother-infant dyad.

Methods

Term placentae from 20 HIV-1 seronegative women were obtained following caesarian section. VCCs were evaluated by 3D confocal and electron microscopy. Colocalization R values (Pearson''s correlation) were quantified with colocalization module of Volocity 5.2.1. Replication kinetics and neutralization studies were evaluated using p24 ELISA.

Results

We demonstrate that primary HCs assemble and sequester HIV-1BaL in intracellular VCCs, which are enriched in endosomal/lysosomal markers, including CD9, CD81, CD63 and LAMP-1. Following infection, we observed HIV-1 accumulation in potentially acidic compartments, which stained intensely with Lysotracker-Red. Remarkably, these compartments are readily accessible via the cell surface and can be targeted by exogenously applied small molecules and HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies. In addition, broadly neutralizing antibodies (4E10 and VRC01) limited viral replication by HIV-1-infected HCs, which may be mediated by FcγRI.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that placental HCs possess intrinsic adaptations facilitating unique sequestration of HIV-1, and may serve as a protective viral reservoir to permit viral neutralization and/or antiretroviral drug entry in utero.  相似文献   
3.
目的:通过体外内皮化和体内内皮化,探讨沉积胶原包埋羟基磷灰石(HA)涂层人工机械瓣膜的可行性及其在人工机械瓣膜支架体内的再细胞化能力。方法制备犬血管内皮细胞(VEC)悬液,接种在胶原包埋 HA 涂层人工机械瓣膜材料上,置培养箱内分组培养如下:①37℃孵箱中静态培养2周;②动态旋转培养装置中培养2周,比较两组 VEC 分泌一氧化氮(NO)、前列环素(PGI2)水平;再分别将人工机械瓣膜植入犬右心房,术后6周,取出部分材料,扫描电子显微镜(SEM)下观察 VEC 在 HA 材料上的附着情况,了解 HA支架材料在体内的再细胞化能力。结果与静态系统相比,人工机械瓣膜在动态旋转系统构建胶原包埋 HA 涂层 VEC分泌 NO 、PGI2水平显著升高(P <0.05);在犬右心房人工机械瓣膜取出材料中,动态旋转系统构建胶原包埋 HA 涂层VEC 层均匀分布,并有心脏内皮细胞附着,而静态培养系统中 VEC 层分布不均匀,胶原包埋 HA 涂层有心脏血管内皮细胞附着,而单纯人工机械瓣薄膜表面出现较多的血栓形成。结论动态旋转系统中构建的组织工程化瓣膜模型中, VEC 可能成为组织工程化机械瓣膜材料;胶原包埋的 HA 涂层人工机械瓣膜有利于 VEC 的黏附和生长。  相似文献   
4.
目的:通过探究羟基磷灰石(HAp)壳聚糖(CS)复合微球支架对骨髓间充质干细胞体外生物学行为的影响,评估其作为骨组织工程支架的可行性。方法纳米 HAp 和CS 复合物通过微流体技术自组装成微球支架,显微镜下形态学观察。将 P2代骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)与微球行体外共培养,计算前6 h 黏附率。培养1、3、6、9 d,计算增殖率并用 GraphPad Prism 6软件对数据进行处理;行扫描电镜及共聚焦扫描式显微镜检测,观察细胞黏附及分布。将细胞微球复合物填入自制模具中培养14~21 d,进行形态观察。结果显微镜镜下微球为完整的圆形,大小一致。BMSCs 与微球体外培养6 h,黏附率达90%以上。6 d 时,BMSCs 的增殖率达到最高。扫描电镜结果显示微球上有大量 BMSCs 黏附定植并分泌大量胞外基质将微球连接成整体;共聚焦扫描式显微镜结果可见明显的细胞骨架微丝蛋白。细胞微球体外模具培养18 d 后,形成了结构完整的组织块。结论HAp-CS 微球是一种良好的促BMSCs 种子细胞黏附定植的支架材料,是促进细胞生长的有效支撑载体,与共培养细胞形成的复合组织块有望应用于体内动物实验修复标准缺损。  相似文献   
5.
目的:研究人慢性粒细胞白血病细胞株KCL22在NOD-SCID小鼠体内致白血病的能力,为慢性粒细胞白血病血液移植瘤模型鼠的建立奠定基础。方法:取对数生长期的KCL22细胞2×107个,经尾静脉注射入NOD-SCID小鼠,对照组小鼠注射无菌PBS。观察小鼠一般情况,瑞氏染色监测血象和骨髓象变化,PCR检测骨髓细胞BCR-ABL基因转录水平,HE染色观察肝、脾组织肿瘤细胞浸润情况。结果:实验组小鼠于注射细胞后约4周开始出现反应力下降、精神萎靡、股骨肌肿大、后肢骨节出血点等体征,外周血白细胞从第5周逐渐增多,计数较对照组显著升高(P<0.05),血涂片可见幼稚粒细胞,肝、脾、骨髓组织切片可见白血病细胞浸润,骨髓细胞高表达BCR-ABL融合基因,未经治疗存活约70天,较对照组显著缩短(P<0.05)。结论:KCL22细胞可成功构建NOD-SCID小鼠慢性粒细胞白血病移植瘤模型。  相似文献   
6.
目的分离扩增小鼠脐带间充质干细胞(mouse umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells,mUCMSCs)探讨其是否可诱导成软骨、脂肪和成骨细胞。方法 通过贴壁培养法将mUCMSCs体外分离、扩增、纯化,倒置显微镜下观察细胞的形态特征,运用流式细胞仪检测分析细胞的抗原标志表达进行鉴定。运用诱导培养液对分离的mUCMSCs分别定向诱导培养为软骨、脂肪和成骨细胞。结果 运用组织贴块培养法可从新鲜脐带中分离到贴壁生长的成纤维样细胞,这些细胞高表达CD29、CD90和CD105,低表达CD34。成软骨诱导后阿新兰染色呈蓝色;成脂诱导后油红O染色,出现红色脂滴;茜红素染色成骨诱导的mUCMSC,可见红色结节。结论 贴壁培养法分离培养所获得的mUCMSCs在体外可诱导分化为软骨、脂肪和成骨细胞。  相似文献   
7.
Vision is the sense that we use to navigate the world around us. Thus it is not surprising that blindness is one of people's most feared maladies. Heritable diseases of the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, are the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, collectively affecting as many as one-third of all people over the age of 75, to some degree. For decades, scientists have dreamed of preventing vision loss or of restoring the vision of patients affected with retinal degeneration through drug therapy, gene augmentation or a cell-based transplantation approach. In this review we will discuss the use of the induced pluripotent stem cell technology to model and develop various treatment modalities for the treatment of inherited retinal degenerative disease. We will focus on the use of iPSCs for interrogation of disease pathophysiology, analysis of drug and gene therapeutics and as a source of autologous cells for cell transplantation and replacement.  相似文献   
8.
Loss of photoreceptors due to retinal degeneration is a major cause of blindness in the developed world. While no effective treatment is currently available, cell replacement therapy, using pluripotent stem cell-derived photoreceptor precursor cells, may be a feasible future treatment. Recent reports have demonstrated rescue of visual function following the transplantation of immature photoreceptors and we have seen major advances in our ability to generate transplantation-competent donor cells from stem cell sources. Moreover, we are beginning to realise the possibilities of using endogenous populations of cells from within the retina itself to mediate retinal repair. Here, we present a review of our current understanding of endogenous repair mechanisms together with recent progress in the use of both ocular and pluripotent stem cells for the treatment of photoreceptor loss. We consider how our understanding of retinal development has underpinned many of the recent major advances in translation and moved us closer to the goal of restoring vision by cellular means.  相似文献   
9.
Although there are few reports regarding α‐phellandrene (α‐PA), a natural compound from Schinus molle L. essential oil, there is no report to show that α‐PA induced DNA damage and affected DNA repair associated protein expression. Herein, we investigated the effects of α‐PA on DNA damage and repair associated protein expression in murine leukemia cells. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the effects of α‐PA on total cell viability and the results indicated that α‐PA induced cell death. Comet assay and 4,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole dihydrochloride staining were used for measuring DNA damage and condensation, respectively, and the results indicated that α‐PA induced DNA damage and condensation in a concentration‐dependent manner. DNA gel electrophoresis was used to examine the DNA damage and the results showed that α‐PA induced DNA damage in WEHI‐3 cells. Western blotting assay was used to measure the changes of DNA damage and repair associated protein expression and the results indicated that α‐PA increased p‐p53, p‐H2A.X, 14‐3‐3‐σ, and MDC1 protein expression but inhibited the protein of p53, MGMT, DNA‐PK, and BRCA‐1. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 1322–1330, 2015.  相似文献   
10.
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a chemopreventive dietary constituent and extracted from garlic, has been shown to against cultured many types of human cancer cell liens but the fate of apoptosis in murine leukemia cells in vitro and immune responses in leukemic mice remain elusive. Herein, we clarified the actions of DATS on growth inhibition of murine leukemia WEHI‐3 cells in vitro and used WEHI‐3 cells to generate leukemic mice in vivo, following to investigate the effects of DATS in animal model. In in vitro study, DATS induced apoptosis of WEHI‐3 cells through the G0/G1 phase arrest and induction of caspase‐3 activation. In in vivo study DATS decreased the weight of spleen of leukemia mice but did not affect the spleen weight of normal mice. DATS promoted the immune responses such as promotions of the macrophage phagocytosis and NK cell activities in WEHI‐3 leukemic and normal mice. However, DATS only promotes NK cell activities in normal mice. DATS increases the surface markers of CD11b and Mac‐3 in leukemia mice but only promoted CD3 in normal mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that DATS induces cell death through induction of apoptosis in mice leukemia WHEI‐3 cells. DATS also promotes immune responses in leukemia and normal mice in vivo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 1343–1353, 2015.  相似文献   
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