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1.
In forensic medicine, although various alcohols have been reported as indicators of decomposition in collected blood, no studies have examined short-chain fatty acids as indicators. In this study, the blood n-butyric acid concentration was quantified, and the association between n-butyric acid and decomposition was investigated to determine whether the detection of n-butyric acid could be a new indicator of decomposition. Among the forensic autopsies performed from 2016 to 2018 in our laboratory, the cases were divided into decomposed (n = 20) and non-decomposed (n = 20) groups based on macroscopic findings. Blood samples collected at the time of autopsy were derivatized with 3-nitrophenylhydrazine hydrochloride after solid-phase extraction. The n-butyric acid concentration was measured using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, ethanol and n-propanol were measured using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. There was a significant difference (p < 0.01) in the concentrations of n-butyric acid between the decomposed and non-decomposed groups (0.343 ± 0.259 [0.030–0.973] and 0.003 ± 0.002 [0.001–0.007] mg/mL, respectively). In the decomposed group, n-butyric acid was detected at high concentrations, even in cases where n-propanol was low. These results suggest that n-butyric acid is more likely to be an indicator of blood decomposition than n-propanol.  相似文献   
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《Cancer cell》2022,40(8):835-849.e8
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ObjectiveEach pulmonary segment is an anatomical and functional unit. However, it is fundamentally difficult to precisely distinguish every pulmonary segment using the conventional pulmonary intersegmental planes from computed tomography images. Building arteriopulmonary segments is likely to be an effective way to identify pulmonary segments.MethodsThe thoracic computed tomography images of 40 patients were collected. The anatomic structures of interest were extracted in the transverse, sagittal, and coronal planes using the semi-automated segmentation tools provided by Amira software. The intrapulmonary vessels were subsequently segmented and reconstructed. The distributions of the pulmonary arteries, veins, and bronchi were observed. In patients with pulmonary masses, the mass was also reconstructed.ResultsThe three-dimensional reconstructed images showed the branches of the pulmonary artery ramified up to their eighth order covering the entire lung as well as evident intersegmental gaps without pulmonary arteries. The segmental artery was closely accompanied by the segmental bronchi in 486 pulmonary segments (90% of total number of segments). The size and spatial location of the pulmonary mass within a pulmonary segment were also clearly visible.ConclusionsDemarcation of arteriopulmonary segments can be used to precisely distinguish every pulmonary segment and provide its detailed anatomical structure before pulmonary segmentectomy.  相似文献   
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Amacrine cells of the retina are conspicuously variable in their morphologies, their population demographics, and their ensuing functions. Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3) amacrine cells are a recently characterized type of amacrine cell exhibiting local dendritic autonomy. The present analysis has examined three features of this VGluT3 population, including their density, local distribution, and dendritic spread, to discern the extent to which these are interrelated, using male and female mice. We first demonstrate that Bax-mediated cell death transforms the mosaic of VGluT3 cells from a random distribution into a regular mosaic. We subsequently examine the relationship between cell density and mosaic regularity across recombinant inbred strains of mice, finding that, although both traits vary across the strains, they exhibit minimal covariation. Other genetic determinants must therefore contribute independently to final cell number and to mosaic order. Using a conditional KO approach, we further demonstrate that Bax acts via the bipolar cell population, rather than cell-intrinsically, to control VGluT3 cell number. Finally, we consider the relationship between the dendritic arbors of single VGluT3 cells and the distribution of their homotypic neighbors. Dendritic field area was found to be independent of Voronoi domain area, while dendritic coverage of single cells was not conserved, simply increasing with the size of the dendritic field. Bax-KO retinas exhibited a threefold increase in dendritic coverage. Each cell, however, contributed less dendrites at each depth within the plexus, intermingling their processes with those of neighboring cells to approximate a constant volumetric density, yielding a uniformity in process coverage across the population.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Different types of retinal neuron spread their processes across the surface of the retina to achieve a degree of dendritic coverage that is characteristic of each type. Many of these types achieve a constant coverage by varying their dendritic field area inversely with the local density of like-type neighbors. Here we report a population of retinal amacrine cells that do not develop dendritic arbors in relation to the spatial positioning of such homotypic neighbors; rather, this cell type modulates the extent of its dendritic branching when faced with a variable number of overlapping dendritic fields to approximate a uniformity in dendritic density across the retina.  相似文献   
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ObjectivesOur aim was to evaluate the effect of the updated European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Mycoses Study Group 2019 definitions for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) on patient classification and the related all-cause 12-week mortality.MethodsIn this retrospective cohort study from our tertiary care centre, we reclassified patients with haematological malignancy who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage between 2014 and 2019 for suspected IPA using the novel EORTC 2019 criteria. We performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to define the optimal cut-off for positive PCR and galactomannan and present survival analyses and their possible association with these diagnostic criteria through post hoc comparisons with log rank and Cox regression.ResultsFrom 323 episodes of suspected IPA in 282 patients, 73 were reclassified: 31 (42.5%) from possible to probable IPA, 5 (6.8%) from EORTC criteria not met to probable IPA, and 37 (50.7%) from EORTC criteria not met to possible IPA. Probable IPA increased therefore 11.1% (64/323, 19.8% to 100/323, 30.9%), mostly due to positive PCR (31/36, 86.1%). There was no difference in mortality between newly defined possible and probable IPA (log rank p = 0.950). Mortality was higher in probable cases with lower cycle thresholds (Ct values) versus higher Ct values (p = 0.004). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an optimal Ct value cut-off of 36.8 with a sensitivity of 75% (95% CI 64.9%–85.1%) and a specificity of 61.7% (95% CI 53.5–69.9) for 12-week mortality.DiscussionThe new EORTC criteria led to 11.1% more probable IPA diagnoses, mostly due to Aspergillus PCR. Restricting positive PCR to below a certain threshold might improve the discrimination of the new EORTC IPA categories for mortality.  相似文献   
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《Vaccine》2022,40(30):4038-4045
PurposeAs protection from COVID-19 following two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine showed a time dependent waning, a third (booster) dose was administrated. This study aims to compare the antibody response following the third dose versus the second and to evaluate post-booster seroconversion.MethodsA prospective observational study conducted in Maccabi Healthcare Services. Serial SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG tests, 1,2,3 and 6 months following the second vaccine dose and one month following the third were obtained. Neutralizing antibody levels were measured in a subset of participants. Per individual SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG titer ratios were calculated one month after the booster administration compared to titers one month following the second dose and prior to booster.ResultsAmong 110 participants, 56 (51%) were women. Mean age was 61.7 ± 1.9 years and 66 (60%) were immunocompromised. One month after third dose, IgG titers were induced 7.83 (95 %CI 5.25–11.67) folds and 2.40 (95 %CI 1.90–3.03) folds compared to one month after the second, in the immunocompromised and immunocompetent groups, respectively. Of the 17 immunocompromised participants who were seronegative after the second dose, 4 (24%) became seropositive following the third. Comparing the titers prior to the third dose, an increase of 50.7 (95 %CI 32.5–79.1) fold in the immunocompromised group and 25.7 (95 %CI 19.1–34.7) fold in and immunocompetent group, was observed.ConclusionA third BNT162b2 vaccine elicited robust humoral response, superior to the response observed following the second, among immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.  相似文献   
9.
ABSTRACT

Objective: Dry eye is reported to be associated with several neurological diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the patients with hemiplegia after stroke for dry eye and compare their results with a control group.

Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with hemiplegia and 45 individuals as the control group were included in the study. Tear function tests (Schirmer and tear breakup time) and a dry eye questionnaire for dry eye symptoms (ocular surface disease index) were performed and the results of the two groups were compared.

Results: Schirmer test results were significantly lower in the post-stroke hemiplegia group compared to the control group (11.3 ± 8.2 mm and 20.6 ± 11.6 mm, respectively, p < .001). Tear breakup time results were significantly lower in the post-stroke hemiplegia group compared to the control group (7.9 ± 3.1 s and 12.1 ± 4.3 s, respectively, p < .001). Ocular surface disease index scores were not significantly different between hemiplegia and control groups (21.6 ± 20.0 and 19.8 ± 13.9, respectively, p = .635). Schirmer scores lower than 10 mm (60% and 30%, p < .001) and tear breakup time results lower than 10 s (65.6% and 28.9%, p < .001) were also higher in the hemiplegia group compared to control group.

Conclusion: We found lower Schirmer test and tear breakup time results and similar OSDI scores in hemiplegia patients compared to controls. Hemiplegia patients may have dry eye without typical symptoms. This should be taken into consideration in the follow-up and rehabilitation of post-stroke hemiplegia patients.  相似文献   
10.
Introduction: Percutaneous renal mass biopsy has evolved over the last decade with improvements on previous pitfalls including low tissue yield, high non-diagnostic rates, and complications. As understanding of tumor biology and natural history of renal cortical neoplasms has improved, percutaneous renal mass biopsy is poised to have an expanding role in an area characterized by individualized management and refined risk stratification.

Areas covered: This review summarizes the evolution of renal mass biopsy to its current state with respect to outcomes, indications, and clinical guidelines.

Expert opinion: With improved understanding of differential biological potential of renal cortical neoplasms combined with technical improvements in diagnostic yield and accuracy, utilization of renal mass biopsy is becoming an important adjunct to patient care in a broad range of clinical scenarios, including active surveillance, thermal ablation, and use of primary systemic therapy in localized and advanced settings.  相似文献   

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