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1.
《Vaccine》2023,41(2):365-371
PurposeAdministration of three doses of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was completed in Japan in the spring of 2022. This study aimed to evaluate the antibody responses, and kinetics of three doses of vaccine in healthcare workers (HCWs).Patients and methodsWe conducted a longitudinal cohort study with HCWs, who had no history of COVID-19 or serologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, from a single hospital. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) titers were measured using an automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system.ResultsA total of 636 HCWs participated in the study. The anti-SP IgG titers decreased slowly after the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in all participants, and robust antibody response was observed after the third dose of the vaccine. The peak anti-SP IgG titer after the third dose was approximately 4.1-fold higher than that after the first and second doses, and the rate of decrease in the anti-SP IgG titer after the third dose was significantly more gradual, than that after the second dose. After the second dose of vaccine, the antibody response was weaker in older participants than in younger participants, and in males than in females respectively, whereas the response to the third dose of vaccine did not differ significantly by sex or age. Adverse events following immunization were generally mild to moderate.ConclusionThe third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine induced a significant and sustained increase in anti-SP IgG titers, and was generally safe and well-tolerated.  相似文献   

2.
《Vaccine》2023,41(13):2234-2242
The sustained epidemic of Omicron subvariants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a worldwide concern, and older adults are at high risk. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) in nursing home residents and staff between May 2021 and December 2022. A total of 335 SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals, including 141 residents (median age: 88 years) and 194 staff (median age: 44 years) participated. Receptor-binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) protein IgG and neutralizing titer (NT) against the Wuhan strain, Alpha and Delta variants, and Omicron BA.1 and BA.5 subvariants were measured in serum samples drawn from participants after the second and third doses of mRNA vaccine using SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus. Breakthrough infection (BTI) was confirmed by a notification of COVID-19 or a positive anti-N IgG result in serum after mRNA vaccination. Fifty-one participants experienced SARS-CoV-2 BTI during the study period. The RBD IgG and NTs against Omicron BA.1 and BA.5 were markedly increased in SARS CoV-2 naïve participants 2 months after the third dose of mRNA vaccine, compared to those 5 months after the second dose, and declined 5 months after the third dose. The decline in RBD IgG and NT against Omicron BA.1 and BA.5 in SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants after the second and the third dose was particularly marked in those aged ≥ 80 years. BTIs during the BA.5 epidemic period, which occurred between 2 and 5 months after the third dose, induced a robust NT against BA.5 even five months after the booster dose vaccination. Further studies are required to assess the sustainability of NTs elicited by Omicron-containing bivalent mRNA booster vaccine in older adults.  相似文献   

3.
《Vaccine》2023,41(28):4190-4198
BackgroundOlder adults are at increased risk of adverse outcomes from pneumococcal disease and COVID-19. Vaccination is an established strategy for preventing both illnesses. This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of coadministration of the 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV20) and a booster (third dose) of BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine.MethodsThis phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multicentre study included 570 participants aged ≥65 years randomized 1:1:1 to PCV20 and BNT162b2 coadministered, or PCV20 or BNT162b2 only (administered with saline for blinding). Primary safety endpoints included local reactions, systemic events, adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs). Secondary objectives were immunogenicity of PCV20 and BNT162b2 when administered together or separately.ResultsCoadministration of PCV20 and BNT162b2 was well tolerated. Local reactions and systemic events were generally mild-moderate; injection-site pain and fatigue were the most frequent local and systemic events, respectively. AE and SAE rates were low and similar across groups. No AEs led to discontinuation; no SAEs were considered vaccination-related. Robust immune responses were observed, with opsonophagocytic activity geometric mean fold rises (GMFRs; from baseline to 1 month) of 2.5–24.5 and 2.3–30.6 across PCV20 serotypes in Coadministration and PCV20-only groups, respectively. GMFRs for full-length S-binding IgG of 35.5 and 39.0, and for neutralizing titres against SARS-CoV-2-wild type virus of 58.8 and 65.4, were observed in the Coadministration and BNT162b2-only groups, respectively.ConclusionsSafety and immunogenicity of coadministered PCV20 and BNT162b2 were similar to those of PCV20 or BNT162b2 administered alone, suggesting that the 2 vaccines may be coadministered.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04887948.  相似文献   

4.
《Vaccine》2022,40(24):3320-3329
BackgroundCurrently, booster dose is needed after 2 doses of non-live COVID-19 vaccine. With limited resources and shortage of COVID-19 vaccines, intradermal(ID) administration might be a potential dose-sparing strategy.ObjectiveTo determine immunologic response and reactogenicity of ID ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222,Oxford/AstraZeneca) as a booster dose after completion of 2-dose CoronaVac(SV) in healthy adult.MethodsThis is a prospective cohort study of adult aged 18–59 years who received 2-dose SV at 14–35 days apart for more than 2 months. Participants received ID AZD1222 at fractional low dose(1×1010 viral particles,0.1 ml). Antibody responses were evaluated by surrogate virus neutralization test(sVNT) against delta variant and wild type, and anti-spike-receptor-binding-domain immunoglobulin G(anti-S-RBD IgG) at prior, day14, 28, 90, and 180 post booster. Solicited reactogenicity was collected for 7 days post-booster. Primary endpoint was the differences of sVNT against delta strain ≥ 80% inhibition at day14 and 90 compared with the parallel cohort study of 0.5-ml intramuscular(IM) route.ResultsFrom August2021, 100 adults with median age of 46 years(IQR 41–52) participated. Prior to booster, geometric mean(GM) of sVNT against delta strain was 22.4% inhibition(95 %CI 18.7–26.9) and of anti-S-RBD IgG was 109.3 BAU/ml(95.4–125.1). Post ID booster, GMs of sVNT against delta strain were 95.5% inhibition (95%CI 94.2–96.8) at day14, 73.1% inhibition (66.7–80.2) at day90, and 22.7% inhibition (14.9–34.6) at day180. The differences of proportion of participants achieving sVNT against delta strain ≥ 80% inhibition in ID recipients versus IM were + 4.2% (95 %CI -2.0to10.5) at day14, and ?37.3%(-54.2to-20.3) at day90. Anti-S-RBD IgG GMs were 2037.1 BAU/ml (95%CI 1770.9–2343.2) at day14 and 744.6 BAU/ml(650.1–852.9) at day90, respectively. Geometric mean ratios(GMRs) of anti-S-RBD IgG were 0.99(0.83–1.20) at day14, and 0.82(0.66–1.02) at day90. Only 18% reported feverish, compared with 37% of IM (p = 0.003). Common reactogenicity was erythema at injection site(53%) while 7% reported blister.ConclusionLow-dose ID AZD1222 booster enhanced lower neutralizing antibodies at 3 months compared with IM route. Less systemic reactogenicity occurred, but higher local reactogenicity.  相似文献   

5.
《Vaccine》2022,40(18):2551-2560
BackgroundImmunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has waning antibody over time. With the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant, which requires higher neutralizing antibody to prevent infection, a booster dose is needed.ObjectiveTo evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of standard- versus low-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine booster after CoronaVac in healthy adults.MethodsA double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial of adult, aged 18–59 years, with completion of 2-dose CoronaVac at 21–28 days apart for more than 2 months was conducted. Participants were randomized to receive AZD1222 (Oxford/AstraZeneca) intramuscularly; standard dose (SD, 5x1010 viral particles) or low dose (LD, 2.5x1010 viral particles). Surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) against wild type and delta variant, and anti-spike-receptor-binding-domain IgG (anti-S-RBD IgG) were compared as geometric mean ratio (GMR) at day 14 and 90 between LD and SD arms.ResultsFrom July-August 2021, 422 adults with median age of 44 (IQR 36–51) years were enrolled. The median interval from CoronaVac to AZD1222 booster was 77 (IQR 64–95) days. At baseline, geometric means (GMs) of sVNT against delta variant and anti-S-RBD IgG were 18.1%inhibition (95% CI 16.4–20.0) and 111.5 (105.1–118.3) BAU/ml. GMs of sVNT against delta variant and anti-S-RBD IgG in SD were 95.6%inhibition (95% CI 94.3–97.0) and 1975.1 (1841.7–2118.2) BAU/ml at day 14, and 89.4%inhibition (86.4–92.4) and 938.6 (859.9–1024.4) BAU/ml at day 90, respectively. GMRs of sVNT against delta variant and anti-S-RBD IgG in LD compared to SD were 1.00 (95% CI 0.98–1.02) and 0.84 (0.76–0.93) at day 14, and 0.98 (0.94–1.03) and 0.89 (0.79–1.00) at day 90, respectively. LD recipients had significantly lower rate of fever (6.8% vs 25.0%) and myalgia (51.9% vs 70.7%) compared to SD.ConclusionHalf-dose AZD1222 booster after 2-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination had non-inferior immunogenicity, yet lower systemic reactogenicity. Fractional low-dose AZD1222 booster should be considered especially in resource-constrained settings.  相似文献   

6.
《Vaccine》2022,40(39):5670-5674
BackgroundAntibody levels decrease substantially at 6 months after the BNT162b2 vaccine. The factors influencing titer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) among healthcare workers for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear.MethodsWe conducted a 6-month longitudinal prospective study in Japanese healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital for COVID-19. Participants in the study were tested for the presence of anti-spike protein (SP) IgG antibodies before and at 1 and 6 months after the last vaccination dose.ResultsAmong 1076 healthcare workers, 794 received the vaccine, and 469 entered the study. Five were infected with SARS-CoV-2 (none among COVID-19 section workers) by the end of the study and 451 participants were finally analyzed (mean age, 42.5 years; 27.3 % male; 18.8 % COVID-19 section workers). Median SP IgG index values were 0.0, 44.4, and 5.5 before and at 1 and 6 months after the last dose, respectively. Regression analysis revealed a negative correlation of SP IgG antibody levels with age (P < 0.0001), and higher levels in COVID-19 section workers (P = 0.0185) and in females (P = 0.0201).ConclusionIn healthcare workers at a COVID-19 hospital, IgG antibody titer was substantially lower at 6 months after receipt of the last dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine compared with that 1 month after the last dose, but was better preserved among younger participants, COVID-19 section workers and females.  相似文献   

7.
《Vaccine》2021,39(32):4545-4554
BackgroundTo demonstrate extended protection against meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) disease after MenB-FHbp (bivalent rLP2086) vaccination, this study evaluated immunopersistence through 26 months following MenB-FHbp boosting after 2 or 3 primary doses in adolescents.Study designThis phase 3, open-label study was an extension of 3 phase 2 studies with participants aged 11–18 years randomized to receive primary MenB-FHbp vaccination following 1 of 5 dosing schedules or control. A booster dose was administered 48 months after the primary series. Immunopersistence through 48 months after the last primary dose (persistence stage) and 26 months postbooster (booster stage) was determined by serum bactericidal assays using human complement (hSBAs) against 4 vaccine-heterologous test strains. Safety evaluations included adverse events (AEs) and local and systemic reactions.ResultsOverall, 698 and 304 subjects enrolled in the persistence and booster stages, respectively. hSBA titers declined in all groups during 12 months postprimary vaccination, then remained stable through 48 months. One month postbooster, 93.4–100.0% of subjects achieved hSBA titers ≥ lower limit of quantitation against each test strain; percentages at 12 and 26 months postbooster were higher than at similar time points following primary vaccination. Primary and booster MenB-FHbp vaccinations were well tolerated, with ≤ 12.5% of subjects reporting AEs during each stage. The most common local (reported by 84.4–93.8% of subjects) and systemic (68.8–76.6%) reactions to the booster were injection site pain and fatigue and headache, respectively; ≤ 3.7% of subjects reported severe systemic events.ConclusionProtective hSBA titers initially declined but were retained by many subjects for 4 years irrespective of primary MenB-FHbp vaccination schedule. Boosting at 48 months after primary vaccination was safe, well tolerated, and induced immune responses indicative of immunological memory that persisted through 26 months. Booster vaccination during late adolescence may prolong protection against MenB disease.  相似文献   

8.
《Vaccine》2020,38(17):3339-3350
BackgroundVaccination against S. pneumoniae is recommended by national guidelines. Moderate immunogenicity of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been reported in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR). This study further defines the immunogenicity of PCV13 in this cohort.Methods49 KTR were immunized with PCV13. A validated opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPA), a global anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (anti-PCP) IgG, IgG2, IgM and IgA ELISA, and - for selected patients - a serotype specific anti-PCP WHO reference ELISA were performed pre-vaccination and at month 1 and 12 post-vaccination.ResultsGeometric mean OPA titers increased significantly for 13/13 serotypes at month 1 and for 10/13 serotypes at month 12 post-vaccination. Vaccine response defined as an OPA titer ≥1:8 was reached in 9/13 serotypes (median). 53% reached the vaccine response criteria at month 1 and 45% at month 12. At month 1 after vaccination, the median OPA titer in an age-group matched healthy reference population was 5- to 10-fold higher than in KTR. OPA titers correlated strongly with results to the global and serotype specific anti-PCP IgG ELISA. Lower OPA titers significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with albuminuria, an interval between vaccination and transplantation <12 months, age and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. Global IgG, IgG2, IgM and IgA, as well as serotype specific anti-PCP antibody concentrations (12/13 serotypes) increased significantly at month 1 and 12 post-vaccination.ConclusionsKidney transplant recipients show a significant humoral response after vaccination with PCV13. Functional antibody response exists, but is not as vigorous as in healthy adults.  相似文献   

9.
《Vaccine》2023,41(5):1042-1049
ObjectiveAn open-label study was conducted to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a sequential administration of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) between an interval of 0.5 (0.5-y) and 1 year (1.0-y) in adults aged ≥ 65 years.MethodsPneumococcal vaccine-naïve adults aged ≥ 65 years (n = 129) received a sequential administration with an interval of 0.5-y or 1.0-y or received a single administration of PPSV23 (single PPSV23). We evaluated the immunogenicity before and 1 month after each vaccination and at 0.5-y intervals for 2 years. The primary endpoint was the increase in geometric mean fold rises (GMFRs) of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) for eight common serotypes one month after one dose of PPSV23. The secondary endpoint was the safety profile for one dose of PPSV23.ResultsOne month after administration of PPSV23, the GMFRs of IgG considerably increased for five of eight serotypes in the 1.0-y interval group, whereas the GMFRs of IgG considerably increased for two serotypes in the 0.5-y interval group. Furthermore, GMFRs of OPA markedly increased for all eight serotypes in the 1.0-y interval group, while GMFRs of OPA markedly increased for four serotypes in the 0.5-y interval group. At 2 years after initial vaccination, GMFRs of IgG or OPA were higher for all serotypes, except for serotype 3, than those in the single PPSV23 group irrespective of intervals. No significant difference was found in the frequencies of local reactions of all grades between the two intervals.ConclusionsThe 1.0-y interval provided better booster effects induced by PPSV23 than those of the 0.5-y interval in a sequential administration in pneumococcal vaccine-naïve adults aged ≥ 65 years. No difference was found in the safety profile between both intervals.  相似文献   

10.
《Vaccine》2023,41(38):5525-5534
BackgroundDS-5670a is a vaccine candidate for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) harnessing a novel modality composed of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) from the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles. Here, we report the safety, immunogenicity, and pharmacokinetic profile of DS-5670a from a phase 2 clinical trial in healthy adults who were immunologically naïve to SARS-CoV-2.MethodsThe study consisted of an open-label, uncontrolled, dose-escalation part and a double-blind, randomized, uncontrolled, 2-arm, parallel-group part. A total of 80 Japanese participants were assigned to receive intramuscular DS-5670a, containing either 30 or 60 µg of mRNA, as two injections administered 4 weeks apart. Safety was assessed by characterization of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Immunogenicity was assessed by neutralization titers against SARS-CoV-2, anti-RBD immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, and SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific T cell responses. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of DS-5670a were also evaluated.ResultsMost solicited TEAEs were mild or moderate with both the 30 and 60 µg mRNA doses. Four participants (10 %) in the 60 µg mRNA group developed severe redness at the injection site, but all cases resolved without treatment. There were no serious TEAEs and no TEAEs leading to discontinuation. Humoral immune responses in both dose groups were greater than those observed in human convalescent serum; the 60 µg mRNA dose produced better responses. Neutralization titers were found to be correlated with anti-RBD IgG levels (specifically IgG1). DS-5670a elicited antigen-specific T helper 1-polarized cellular immune responses.ConclusionsThe novel mRNA-based vaccine candidate DS-5670a provided favorable immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 with a clinically acceptable safety profile. Confirmatory trials are currently ongoing to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of DS-5670a as the primary vaccine and to assess the immunogenicity when administered as a heterologous or homologous booster.Trial registry: https://jrct.niph.go.jp/latest-detail/jRCT2071210086.  相似文献   

11.
《Vaccine》2023,41(36):5296-5303
The immune response to COVID-19 booster vaccinations during pregnancy for mothers and their newborns and the functional response of vaccine-induced antibodies against Omicron variants are not well characterized. We conducted a prospective, multicenter cohort study of participants vaccinated during pregnancy with primary or booster mRNA COVID-19 vaccines from July 2021 to January 2022 at 9 academic sites. We determined SARS-CoV-2 binding and live virus and pseudovirus neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers pre- and post-vaccination, and at delivery for both maternal and infant participants. Immune responses to ancestral and Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 strains were compared between primary and booster vaccine recipients in maternal sera at delivery and in cord blood, after adjusting for days since last vaccination.A total of 240 participants received either Pfizer or Moderna mRNA vaccine during pregnancy (primary 2-dose series: 167; booster dose: 73). Booster vaccination resulted in significantly higher binding and nAb titers, including to the Omicron BA.1 variant, in maternal serum at delivery and in cord blood compared to a primary 2-dose series (range 0.44–0.88 log10 higher, p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Live virus nAb to Omicron BA.1 were present at delivery in 9 % (GMT ID50 12.7) of Pfizer and 22 % (GMT ID50 14.7) of Moderna primary series recipients, and in 73 % (GMT ID50 60.2) of mRNA boosted participants (p < 0.0001), although titers were significantly lower than to the D614G strain. Transplacental antibody transfer was efficient for all regimens with median transfer ratio range: 1.55–1.77 for IgG, 1.00–1.78 for live virus nAb and 1.79–2.36 for pseudovirus nAb. COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during pregnancy elicited robust immune responses in mothers and efficient transplacental antibody transfer to the newborn. A booster dose during pregnancy significantly increased maternal and cord blood binding and neutralizing antibody levels, including against Omicron BA.1. Findings support the use of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy.  相似文献   

12.
《Vaccine》2023,41(25):3763-3771
BackgroundWe evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of NVX-CoV2373 in Japanese adults who had completed a primary series of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine 6–12 months previously.MethodsThis single-arm, open-label, phase 3 study, conducted at two Japanese centres, enrolled healthy adults ≥ 20 years old. Participants received a booster dose of NVX-CoV2373. The primary immunogenicity endpoint was non-inferiority (lower limit of the 95 % confidence interval [CI] ≥ 0.67) of the geometric mean titre (GMT) ratio of titres of serum neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain 14 days after booster vaccination (day 15) in this study, compared with those 14 days after the second primary NVX-CoV2373 vaccination (day 36) in the TAK-019-1501 study (NCT04712110). Primary safety endpoints included local and systemic solicited adverse events (AEs) up to day 7 and unsolicited AEs up to day 28.ResultsBetween 15 April 2022 and 10 May 2022, 155 participants were screened and 150, stratified by age (20–64 years old [n = 135] or ≥ 65 years old [n = 15]), received an NVX-CoV2373 booster dose. The GMT ratio between titres of serum nAbs against the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain on day 15 in this study and those on day 36 in the TAK-019-1501 study was 1.18 (95 % CI, 0.95–1.47), meeting the non-inferiority criterion. Following vaccination, the proportion of participants who reported local and systemic solicited AEs up to day 7 was 74.0 % and 48.0 %, respectively. The most common local and systemic solicited AEs were tenderness (102 participants [68.0 %]) and malaise (39 participants [26.0 %]), respectively. Seven participants (4.7 %) reported unsolicited AEs between vaccination and day 28; all were severity grade ≤ 2.DiscussionA single heterologous NVX-CoV2373 booster induced rapid and robust anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses, addressing waning immunity in healthy Japanese adults, and had an acceptable safety profile.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05299359.  相似文献   

13.
《Vaccine》2022,40(47):6730-6739
IntroductionHead-to-head studies comparing COVID-19 mRNA vaccine effectiveness in immunocompromised individuals, who are vulnerable to severe disease are lacking, as large sample sizes are required to make meaningful inferences.MethodsThis observational comparative effectiveness study was conducted in closed administrative claims data from the US HealthVerity database (December 11, 2020-January 10, 2022, before omicron). A 2-dose mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2 regimen was assessed for preventing medically-attended breakthrough COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalizations among immunocompromised adults. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was applied to balance baseline characteristics between vaccine groups. Incidence rates from patient-level data and hazard ratios (HRs) using weighted Cox proportional hazards models were calculated.ResultsOverall, 57,898 and 66,981 individuals received a 2-dose regimen of mRNA-1273 or BNT161b2, respectively. Among the weighted population, mean age was 51 years, 53 % were female, and baseline immunodeficiencies included prior blood transplant (8%–9%), prior organ transplant (7%), active cancer (12%–13%), primary immunodeficiency (5–6%), HIV (20%–21%), and immunosuppressive therapy use (60%–61%). Rates per 1,000 person-years (PYs; 95% confidence intervals [CI]s) of breakthrough medically-attended COVID-19 were 25.82 (23.83–27.97) with mRNA-1273 and 30.98 (28.93, 33.18) with BNT162b2 (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75–0.93). When requiring evidence of an antigen or polymerase chain reaction test before COVID-19 diagnosis, the HR for medically-attended COVID-19 was 0.78 (0.67–0.92). Breakthrough COVID-19 hospitalization rates per 1,000 PYs (95% CI) were 3.66 (2.96–4.51) for mRNA-1273 and 4.68 (3.91–5.59) for BNT162b2 (HR, 0.78; 0.59–1.03). Utilizing open and closed claims for outcome capture only, or both cohort entry/outcome capture, produced HRs (95% CIs) for COVID-19 hospitalization of 0.72 (0.57–0.92) and 0.66 (0.58–0.76), respectively.ConclusionsAmong immunocompromised adults, a 2-dose mRNA-1273 regimen was more effective in preventing medically-attended COVID-19 in any setting (inpatient and outpatient) than 2-dose BNT162b2. Results were similar for COVID-19 hospitalization, although statistical power was limited when using closed claims only.Study registrationNCT05366322.  相似文献   

14.
《Vaccine》2023,41(29):4280-4286
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants has significantly reduced the efficacy of some approved vaccines. A fourth dose of NVX-CoV2373 (5 µg SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike [rS] protein + 50 µg Matrix-M™ adjuvant; Novavax, Gaithersburg, MD) was evaluated to determine induction of cross-reactive antibodies to variants of concern. A phase II randomized study (NCT04368988) recruited participants in Australia and the United States to assess a primary series of NVX-CoV2373 followed by two booster doses (third and fourth doses at 6-month intervals) in adults 18–84 years of age. The primary series was administered when the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain was prevalent and the third and fourth doses while the Alpha and Delta variants were prevalent in AUS and US. Local/systemic reactogenicity was assessed the day of vaccination and for 6 days thereafter. Unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were reported. Immunogenicity was measured before, and 14 days after, fourth dose administration, using anti-spike serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralization assays against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain and Omicron sublineages. Among 1283 enrolled participants, 258 were randomized to receive the two-dose primary series, of whom 104 received a third dose, and 45 received a fourth dose of NVX-CoV2373. The incidence of local/systemic reactogenicity events increased after the first three doses of NVX-CoV2373 and leveled off after dose 4. Unsolicited AEs were reported in 9 % of participants after dose 4 (none of which were severe or serious). Anti-rS IgG levels and neutralization antibody titers increased following booster doses to a level approximately four-fold higher than that observed after the primary series, with a progressively narrowed gap in response between the ancestral strain and Omicron BA.5. A fourth dose of NVX-CoV2373 enhanced immunogenicity for ancestral and variant SARS-CoV-2 strains without increasing reactogenicity, indicating that updates to the vaccine composition may not be currently warranted.  相似文献   

15.
《Vaccine》2022,40(10):1483-1492
IntroductionIndividuals with an underlying malignancy have high risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes. In clinical trials, COVID-19 vaccines were safe and efficacious against infection, hospitalization, and death, but most trials excluded participants with cancer. We report results from participants with a history of past or active neoplasm (malignant or benign/unknown) and up to 6 months’ follow-up post-dose 2 from the placebo-controlled, observer-blinded trial of the 2-dose BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.Patients and methodsBetween July 2020–January 2021, 46,429 participants aged ≥ 12 years were randomized at 152 sites in 6 countries. Healthy participants with pre-existing stable neoplasm could participate; those receiving immunosuppressive therapy were excluded. Data are reported for participants, aged ≥ 16 years for safety and ≥ 12 years for efficacy, who had any history of neoplasm at baseline (data cut-off: March 13, 2021). Adverse-event (AE) data are controlled for follow-up time before unblinding and reported as incidence rates (IRs) per 100 person-years follow-up.ResultsAt baseline, 3813 participants had a history of neoplasm; most common malignancies were breast (n = 460), prostate (n = 362), and melanoma (n = 223). Four BNT162b2 and 71 placebo recipients developed COVID-19 from 7 days post-dose 2; vaccine efficacy was 94.4% (95% CI: 85.2, 98.5) after up to 6 months’ follow-up post-dose 2. This compares favorably with vaccine efficacy of 91.1% in the overall trial population after the same follow-up. AEs were reported at IRs of 95.4 (BNT162b2) and 48.3 (placebo) per 100 person-years. Most common AEs were reactogenicity events (injection-site pain, fatigue, pyrexia). Three BNT162b2 and 1 placebo recipients withdrew because of vaccine-related AEs. No vaccine-related deaths were reported.ConclusionIn participants with past or active neoplasms, BNT162b2 vaccine has a similar efficacy and safety profile as in the overall trial population. These results can inform BNT162b2 use during the COVID-19 pandemic and future trials in participants with cancer.Clinical trial number: NCT04368728.  相似文献   

16.
《Vaccine》2020,38(37):5914-5922
BackgroundFour-component meningococcal B (4CMenB) vaccine is licensed in many countries but has had limited use in adolescents despite this age group being at increased risk of meningococcal disease.ObjectivesTo assess the safety profile of two doses of 4CMenB in adolescents.MethodsCluster randomised controlled trial of senior school students in South Australia (SA) with participating schools randomised to intervention (4CMenB) or control. Vaccine safety was monitored using the South Australian Vaccine Safety Surveillance System (SAVSS), a spontaneous reporting system for adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) with enhanced follow-up of AEFI.Results58,637 doses of 4CMenB vaccine were administered to 30,522 students (median age 16 years) during 2017–2018. Of 18,348 and 12,174 students vaccinated in 2017 and 2018, 97.3% and 84.3%, respectively, received both scheduled doses (N = 28,115). 193 AEFI in 187 students were reported with a reporting rate of 0.32% (95%CI: 0.28–0.39%). Seventy individuals sought medical review, including nine serious adverse events. 98% (166/169) of those who were contactable for AEFI follow-up (87.6% 169/193) reported resolution of the event. Most common AEFI were injection site reaction (126/193), headache (99/193) and nausea (61/193). AEFI were more frequently reported in females (aOR = 1.409 (95%CI: 1.002, 1.980)), schools with high level of educational advantage (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.515 (95%CI: 1.005, 2.284)), following first dose (aOR = 1.619 (95%CI: 1.168, 2.244)), and in 2017 (aOR = 1.437 (95%CI: 1.001, 2.064)). Reported AEFI declined with increasing age (aOR = 0.771 (95%CI: 0.673, 0.883)).ConclusionIn this largest post-licensure use of 4CMenB in adolescents, the low AEFI reporting rate provides real-world evidence of 4CMenB safety in this age group.(ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03089086).  相似文献   

17.
《Vaccine》2023,41(1):76-84
Several countries started a 2nd booster COVID-19 vaccination campaign targeting the elderly population, but evidence around its effectiveness is still scarce. This study aims to estimate the relative effectiveness of a 2nd booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in the population aged ≥ 80 years in Italy, during predominant circulation of the Omicron BA.2 and BA.5 subvariants.We linked routine data from the national vaccination registry and the COVID-19 surveillance system. On each day between 11 April and 6 August 2022, we matched 1:1, according to several demographic and clinical characteristics, individuals who received the 2nd booster vaccine dose with individuals who received the 1st booster vaccine dose at least 120 days earlier. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to compare the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 (hospitalisation or death) between the two groups, calculating the relative vaccine effectiveness (RVE) as (1 – risk ratio)X100.Based on the analysis of 831,555 matched pairs, we found that a 2nd booster dose of mRNA vaccine, 14–118 days post administration, was moderately effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to a 1st booster dose administered at least 120 days earlier [14.3 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 2.2–20.2]. RVE decreased from 28.5 % (95 % CI: 24.7–32.1) in the time-interval 14–28 days to 7.6 % (95 % CI: ?14.1 to 18.3) in the time-interval 56–118 days. However, RVE against severe COVID-19 was higher (34.0 %, 95 % CI: 23.4–42.7), decreasing from 43.2 % (95 % CI: 30.6–54.9) to 27.2 % (95 % CI: 8.3–42.9) over the same time span.Although RVE against SARS-CoV-2 infection was much reduced 2–4 months after a 2nd booster dose, RVE against severe COVID-19 was about 30 %, even during prevalent circulation of the Omicron BA.5 subvariant. The cost-benefit of a 3rd booster dose for the elderly people who received the 2nd booster dose at least four months earlier should be carefully evaluated.  相似文献   

18.
《Vaccine》2023,41(23):3518-3524
BackgroundVaccination is the best mode of protection against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and its sequelae. The duration of protection and the optimal interval of repeat booster doses are still debated. The current study evaluated the persistence of the antibody response 11–15 years after a first booster vaccination following different primary vaccination schedules with a TBE vaccine (Encepur Adults, manufactured by Bavarian Nordic, previously by GSK).MethodsThis phase IV, open-label, mono-centric extension study enrolled adults who had received (at ≥ 12 years of age) primary vaccination with one of three randomly assigned TBE vaccine schedules (rapid [group R], conventional [group C], or accelerated conventional schedule [group A]) followed by a booster dose 3 years later. The antibody response was measured annually from 11 to 15 years post-booster using a TBE virus neutralization test (NT). An NT titer of ≥ 10 was considered as a clinically meaningful threshold and surrogate for protection.ResultsIn total, 194 participants were enrolled and included in the per-protocol set; 188 completed the study. The percentage of participants with an NT titer ≥ 10 was 100% in group R and 99.0% in group A at all visits and ranged from 100% (year 11) to 95.8% (year 15) in group C. NT geometric mean titers were similar in the three study groups (181–267 in group R, 142–227 in group C, 141–209 in group A). NT geometric mean titers also remained high among participants ≥ 50 years old (98–206) and ≥ 60 years old (91–191) across study groups and time points.ConclusionsThis study showed neutralizing antibody persistence for at least 15 years after a first booster dose of the Encepur Adults TBE vaccine in all age groups evaluated, regardless of which primary vaccination schedule was given to adolescents or adults.Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03294135.  相似文献   

19.
《Vaccine》2023,41(26):3862-3871
BackgroundImmunosuppressive therapy used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known to reduce vaccine immunogenicity.AimsThis study aimed to 1) predict the humoral response elicited by SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in IBD patients based on their ongoing treatment and other relevant patient and vaccine characteristics and 2) assess the humoral response to a booster dose of mRNA vaccine.MethodsWe conducted a prospective study in adult IBD patients. Anti-spike (S) IgG antibodies were measured after initial vaccination and again after one booster dose. A multiple linear regression model was created to predict anti-S antibody titer following initial complete vaccination in different therapeutic groups (no immunosuppression, anti-TNF, immunomodulators and combination therapy). A two-tailed Wilcoxon test for two dependent groups was performed to compare anti-S values before and after the booster dose.ResultsOur study included 198 IBD patients. The multiple linear regression identified anti-TNF and combination therapy (versus no immunosuppression), current smoking, viral vector (versus mRNA) vaccine and interval between vaccination and anti-S measurement as statistically significant predictors of the log anti-S antibody levels (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were found between no immunosuppression and immunomodulators (p = 0.349) and between anti-TNF and combination therapy (p = 0.997). Statistically significant differences for anti-S antibody titer before and after the booster dose of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were found, both for non-anti-TNF and anti-TNF groups.ConclusionsAnti-TNF treatment (either alone or in combination therapy) is associated with lower anti-S antibody levels. Booster mRNA doses seem to increase anti-S both in non-anti-TNF and anti-TNF treated patients. Special attention should be paid to this group of patients when planning vaccination schemes.  相似文献   

20.
《Vaccine》2022,40(52):7622-7630
IntroductionThe safety profiles of COVID-19 vaccines are incompletely evaluated in Japan.ObjectivesTo examine the risk of serious adverse effects after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) in cohort studies and self-controlled case series (SCCS).MethodsUsing an administrative claims database linked with the COVID-19 vaccination registry in a city in Japan between September 2020 and September 2021, we identified health insurance enrolees aged ≥ 18 years. We evaluated the risk of acute myocardial infarction, appendicitis, Bell’s palsy, convulsions/seizures, disseminated intravascular coagulation, immune thrombocytopenia, pulmonary embolism, haemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism, and all-cause mortality, 21 days following any COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, compared with non-vaccination periods. For the cohort studies, we estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) by Poisson regression and rate differences (IRDs) by weighted least-squares regression, adjusting for sex, age, and Charlson comorbidity index. We applied a modified SCCS design to appropriately treat outcome-dependent exposures. For the modified SCCS, we estimated within-subject IRRs by weighted conditional Poisson regression. Subgroup analyses stratified by sex and age were also conducted.ResultsWe identified 184,491 enrolees [male: 87,218; mean (standard deviation) age: 64.2 (19.5) years] with 136,667 first and 127,322 s dose vaccinations. The risks of any outcomes did not increase in any analyses, except for the fact that the modified SCCS indicated an increased risk of pulmonary embolism after the first dose in women (within-subject IRR [95%CI]: 3.97 [1.18–13.32]).ConclusionThe findings suggested that the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was generally safe, whilst a signal of pulmonary embolism following the first dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was observed.  相似文献   

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