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1.
BackgroundPediatric trauma epidemiology altered during early COVID-19 pandemic period but the impact of the ongoing pandemic is unknown.ObjectivesTo compare pediatric trauma epidemiology between the pre, early and late pandemic periods and to evaluate the association of race and ethnicity on injury severity during the pandemic.MethodsWe performed a retrospective study of trauma consults for an injury/burn in children ≤16 years between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2021. Study period was categorized into pre (January 1, 2019–February 28, 2020), early (March 1, 2020–December 31, 2020), and late (January 1, 2021–December 31, 2021) pandemic. Demographics, etiology, injury/burn severity, interventions and outcomes were noted.ResultsA total of 4940 patients underwent trauma evaluation. Compared to pre-pandemic, trauma evaluations for injuries and burns increased during both the early (RR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.6–2.82 and RR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.39–3.63, respectively) and late pandemic periods (RR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09–1.86 and RR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.55–3.83, respectively). Severe injuries, hospital admissions, operations and death were higher in the early pandemic but reverted to pre-pandemic levels during late pandemic. Non-Hispanic Blacks had an approximately 40% increase in mean ISS during both pandemic periods though they had lower odds of severe injury during both pandemic periods.ConclusionsTrauma evaluations for injuries and burns increased during the pandemic periods. There was a significant association of race and ethnicity with injury severity which varied with pandemic periods.Level of evidenceRetrospective comparative study, Level III.  相似文献   

2.
BackgroundDeep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is a rare but severe complication after cardiac surgical procedures and has been associated with increased early morbidity and mortality. Studies reporting long-term outcomes in patients with DSWI have shown contradictory results. We performed a study-level meta-analysis evaluating the impact of DSWI on short- and long-term clinical outcomes.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies comparing short- and long-term outcomes of patients submitted to cardiac surgical procedures who developed DSWI and patients who did not. The primary outcome was overall mortality. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, follow-up mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization. Postoperative outcomes were also investigated.ResultsTwenty-four studies totaling 407 829 patients were included. Overall, 6437 (1.6%) patients developed DSWI. Mean follow-up was 3.5 years. DSWI was associated with higher overall mortality (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.66-2.38; P < .001), in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.88-5.81; P < .001), follow-up mortality (IRR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.39-2.94; P = .001), and major adverse cardiovascular events (IRR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.60-2.59; P < .001). No differences in myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization were found, but limited studies reported those outcomes. DSWI was associated with longer postoperative hospitalization, stroke, myocardial infarction, and respiratory and renal failure. Sensitivity analyses on isolated coronary artery bypass grafting studies and by adjustment method were consistent with the main analysis.ConclusionsCompared with patients who did not develop DSWI, patients with DSWI after cardiac surgical procedures had increased risk of death as well as short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes.  相似文献   

3.
PurposePatient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) are increasingly recognized as important health care quality indicators. PREMs measure patients’ perception of the care they have received, differing from satisfaction ratings, which measure their expectations. The use of PREMs in pediatric surgery is limited, prompting this systematic review to assess their characteristics and identify areas for improvement.MethodsA search was conducted in eight databases from inception until January 12, 2022, to identify PREMs used with pediatric surgical patients, with no language restrictions. We focused on studies of patient experience but also included studies that assessed satisfaction and sampled experience domains. The quality of the included studies was appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool.ResultsFollowing title and abstract screening of 2633 studies, 51 were included for full-text review, of which 22 were subsequently excluded because they measured only patient satisfaction rather than experience, and 14 were excluded for a range of other reasons. Out of the 15 included studies, questionnaires used in 12 studies were proxy-reported by parents and in 3 by both parents and children; none focused only on the child. Most instruments were developed in-house for each specific study, without patients' involvement in the process, and were not validated.ConclusionsAlthough PROMs are increasingly used in pediatric surgery, PREMs are not yet in use, being typically substituted by satisfaction surveys. Significant efforts are needed to develop and implement PREMs in pediatric surgical care, in order to effectively capture children's and families' voices.Level of evidenceIV  相似文献   

4.
BackgroundTrust is central to the therapeutic relationship between patients and their providers, yet little is known about how it is developed in the unique context of children facing surgical emergencies. We sought to identify factors fostering trust development, gaps, and areas for improvement.MethodsWe searched eight databases from inception to June 2021 to identify studies focusing on trust in pediatric surgical and urgent care settings. PRISMA-ScR protocols were followed, and screening carried out by two independent reviewers. Data collection included study characteristics, outcomes, and results.ResultsOut of 5578 articles screened, 12 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four major trust constructs were identified: competence, communication, dependability, and caring. Despite various instruments used, all studies reported a high level of parental trust. Nearly all studies (11/12) noted trust depending on parents' sociodemographic background, with ethnicity (3/12) and level of education and language barriers (2/12) limiting parents' confidence in physicians. High trust levels significantly correlated with effective communication and perceived quality of care. Most effective interventions enhancing trust included communication and caring trust constructs (10/12) rather than competence and dependability (5/12). Parents’ individual experiences, development of compassionate interactions, and practice of family-centered care appeared important in developing trust.ConclusionsImproving communication and providing compassionate care, as well as encouraging a patient-centered approach, appear to be most effective in promoting trust in pediatric surgical and urgent settings. Our findings can guide future educational interventions towards strengthening parental trust and promoting child- and family-centered care in pediatric surgical settings.Level of evidence1.  相似文献   

5.
ObjectiveNew-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after cardiac surgery is common, with rates up to 60%. POAF has been associated with early and late stroke, but its association with other cardiovascular outcomes is less known. The objective was to perform a meta-analysis of the studies reporting the association of POAF with perioperative and long-term outcomes in patients with cardiac surgery.MethodsWe performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies that presented outcomes for cardiac surgery on the basis of the presence or absence of POAF. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were assessed; 57 studies (246,340 patients) were selected. Perioperative mortality was the primary outcome. Inverse variance method and random model were performed. Leave-one-out analysis, subgroup analyses, and metaregression were conducted.ResultsPOAF was associated with perioperative mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-2.33), perioperative stroke (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.90-2.49), perioperative myocardial infarction (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06-1.54), perioperative acute renal failure (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.42-3.11), hospital (standardized mean difference, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.53-1.07) and intensive care unit stay (standardized mean difference, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.24-0.86), long-term mortality (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.54; 95% CI, 1.40-1.69), long-term stroke (IRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.21-1.46), and longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation (IRR, 4.73; 95% CI, 3.36-6.66).ConclusionsThe results suggest that POAF after cardiac surgery is associated with an increased occurrence of most short- and long-term cardiovascular adverse events. However, the causality of this association remains to be established.  相似文献   

6.
BackgroundPerianal abscesses and anal fistulas are common. The principle of intention-to-treat has not been considered in previous systemic reviews. Thus, the comparison between primary and post-recurrence management was confused, and the recommendation of primary treatment is obscure. The current study aims to identify the optimal initial treatment for pediatric patients.MethodsUsing PRISMA guidelines, studies were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar without any language or study design restriction. The inclusion criteria include original articles or articles with original data, studies of management for a perianal abscess with or without anal fistula, and patient age of <18 years. Patients with local malignancy, Crohn's disease, or other underlying predisposing conditions were excluded. Studies without analyzing recurrence, case series of <5, and irrelevant articles were excluded in the screening stage. Of the 124 screened articles, 14 articles had no full texts or detailed information. Articles written in a language other than English or Mandarin were translated by Google Translation first and confirmed with native speakers. After the eligibility process, studies that compared identified primary managements were then included in the qualitative synthesis.ResultsThirty-one studies involving 2507 pediatric patients met the inclusion criteria. The study design consisted of two prospective case series of 47 patients and retrospective cohort studies. No randomized control trials were identified. Meta-analyses for recurrence after initial management were performed with a random-effects model. Conservative treatment and drainage revealed no difference (Odds ratio [OR], 1.222; 95% Confidential interval [CI]: 0.615–2.427, p = 0.567). Conservative management had a higher risk of recurrence than surgery without statistical significance (OR 0.278, 95% CI: 0.109–0.707, p = 0.007). Compared with incision/drainage, surgery can prevent recurrence remarkably (OR 4.360, 95% CI: 1.761–10.792, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis of different approaches within conservative treatment and operation was not performed for lacking information.ConclusionStrong recommendations cannot be made due to the lack of prospective or randomized controlled studies. However, the current study based on real primary management supports initial surgical intervention for pediatric patients with perianal abscesses and anal fistula to prevent recurrence.Level of evidenceType of study: Systemic review; Evidence level: Level II.  相似文献   

7.
BackgroundA cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the comparative effectiveness of virtual visits for preoperative evaluation and surgical decision-making in three pediatric surgical subspecialties.MethodsPatients who underwent surgical procedures in the departments of Urology, Ophthalmology, and Plastic and Oral Surgery at a tertiary care pediatric hospital over a one-year period during the COVID-19 pandemic were included. Patients were assigned to one of three clinical pathways based on their preoperative visit(s): only in-person visit(s) (IP), a combination of in-person and virtual visit(s) (IP/VV), and only virtual visit(s) (VV). Demographics, procedure information, and patient experience survey results were collected. We then assessed variations in procedure types and patient experience scores in these three patient groups.ResultsThere were 431 patients who completed the modified patient experience survey. The most common procedures were circumcision (17%), excision of lesion (16%), and strabismus repair (11%). Survey results were positive, with 90% of participants rating that they would recommend the service to others. No significant differences were found among groups in their demographics, overall care rating, and duration between preoperative clinic visit and procedure. Post-hoc power analysis indicated 87% power to detect a 10% difference in survey ratings between IP and VV cases, confirming non-inferiority in patient satisfaction for virtual preoperative visits.ConclusionThis study demonstrated the non-inferiority of preoperative virtual visits in three pediatric surgical subspecialties as measured by patient experience scores. Additional studies with more granular scope are necessary to further elucidate telemedicine's safety and efficacy for select diagnoses.Level of evidenceIII.  相似文献   

8.
IntroductionOur aim was to describe practices in multimodal pain management at US children's hospitals and evaluate the association between non-opioid pain management strategies and pediatric patient-reported outcomes (PROs).MethodsData were collected as part of the 18-hospital ENhanced Recovery In CHildren Undergoing Surgery (ENRICH-US) clinical trial. Non-opioid pain management strategies included use of preoperative and postoperative non-opioid analgesics, regional anesthetic blocks, and a biobehavioral intervention. PROs included perioperative nervousness, pain-related functional disability, health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Associations were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression models.ResultsAmong 186 patients, 62 (33%) received preoperative analgesics, 186 (100%) postoperative analgesics, 81 (44%) regional anesthetic block, and 135 (73%) used a biobehavioral intervention. Patients were less likely to report worsened as compared to stable nervousness following regional anesthetic block (relative risk ratio [RRR]:0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.11–0.85), use of a biobehavioral technique (RRR:0.26, 95% CI:0.10–0.70), and both in combination (RRR:0.08, 95% CI:0.02–0.34). There were no associations of non-opioid pain control modalities with pain-related functional disability or HRQoL.ConclusionUse of postoperative non-opioid analgesics have been largely adopted, while preoperative non-opioid analgesics and regional anesthetic blocks are used less frequently. Regional anesthetic blocks and biobehavioral interventions may mitigate postoperative nervousness in children.Level of evidenceIII.  相似文献   

9.
ObjectiveThe study objective was to understand the impact of race/ethnicity on access to thoracic surgical care for patients undergoing lung resection for cancer.MethodsWe performed a retrospective analysis on 206 consecutive patients who underwent lung resection for cancer (120 female, 86 male; median age 66 years), with respect to how race and ethnicity impact time to referral for thoracic surgery to a major healthcare center. Time between initial radiographic appearance of a lung nodule/mass 1 cm or greater to surgical referral and time from surgical referral to operation were evaluated for 121 White, 30 Asian, 26 Hispanic, 12 African American, and 17 mixed or other race patients. The impact of age, sex, median income of patient's household, national and state Area Deprivation Indices, insurance type, and distance between the patient's domicile and our hospital was evaluated. The influence of the referring physician's practice (hospital-based, hospital-affiliated, or private), internal or external referral, race/ethnicity, and level of specialization was also studied.ResultsAfrican American, Asian, Hispanic, and mixed/other race patients had significantly longer wait times between initial radiographic finding of a lung nodule/mass 1 cm or greater and surgical referral compared with White individuals (median days: African American, 78; Asian, 95; Hispanic, 92; mixed or other, 65; White, 35). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that race/ethnicity was the only significant predictor of prolonged time to surgical referral when adjusted for age, sex, median household income level, national and state Area Deprivation Indices, insurance type, and distance between patient's home and our hospital. The referring physician's type of practice and internal versus external referral were not significant. However, the physician's race/ethnicity and level of specialization had an impact on referral times, with nonspecialists referring patients sooner to thoracic surgery compared with specialists who ordered more workup tests. For all patient races/ethnicities, there was no difference in time between surgical referral and day of operation.ConclusionsRace and ethnicity have a major impact on the time from initial radiographic appearance of a lung nodule/mass 1 cm or greater to referral for surgical resection for cancer. This study suggests the need to develop strategies to reduce minority wait times and improve timely access to surgery for patients with thoracic malignancies.Video AbstractDiscussion of how race and ethnicity impact referral time to thoracic surgery discussed by Dr Moises Hernandez.

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10.
Climate change is occurring at an unprecedented rate. Recent years have seen heatwaves, wildfires, floods, droughts, and re-emerging infectious diseases fueled by global warming. Global warming has also increased the frequency and severity of surgical disease, particularly for children, who bear an estimated 88% of the global burden of disease attributable to climate change. Health care delivery itself weighs heavily on the environment, accounting for nearly 5% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Within the health care sector, surgery and anesthesia are particularly carbon intensive. The surgical community must prioritize the intersection of climate change and pediatric surgery in order to address pediatric surgical disease on a global scale, while reducing the climate impact of surgical care delivery. This review defines the current state of climate change and its effects on pediatric surgical disease, discusses climate justice, and outlines actions to reduce the climate impact of surgical services.Level of EvidenceLevel V.  相似文献   

11.
BackgroundPediatric pedestrian injuries (PPI) are a major public health concern. This study utilized geospatial analysis to characterize the risk and injury severity of PPI.MethodsA retrospective chart review of PPI patients (age < 18) from a level 1 trauma center was performed (2013–2020). A geographic information system geocoded injury location to home and other public landmarks. Incidents were aggregated to zip codes and the Local Indicators of Spatial Association statistic tested for spatial clustering of injury rates per 10,000 children. Predictors for increased injury severity were assessed by logistic regression.ResultsPPI encompassed 6% (n = 188) of pediatric traumas. Most patients were black (54%), male (58%), >13 years (56%), and with Medicaid insurance (68%). Nine zip codes comprised a statistically significant cluster of PPI. Nearly half (40%) occurred within a quarter mile of home; 7% occurred at home. Most (65%) PPI occurred within 1 mile of a school, and 45% occurred within a quarter mile of a park. Nearly all (99%) PPI occurred within a quarter mile of a major intersection and/or roadway. Using admission to ICU as a marker for injury severity, farther distance from home (OR 1.060, 95% CI 1.001–1.121, p = 0.045) and age <13 years (3.662, 95% CI 1.854–7.231, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of injury severity.ConclusionsThere are significant sociodemographic disparities in PPI. Most injuries occur near patients’ homes and other public landmarks. Multidisciplinary injury prevention collaboration can help inform policymakers, direct local safety programs, and provide a model for PPI prevention at the national level.Level of EvidenceLevel IV.  相似文献   

12.
BackgroundUntreated pediatric choledochal cyst (CC) is associated with complications including cholangitis, pancreatitis, and risk of malignancy. Therefore, CC is typically treated by surgical excision with biliary reconstruction. Both open and laparoscopic (lap) surgical approaches are regularly used, but outcomes have not been compared on a national level.MethodsThe Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to identify pediatric patients (age 0–21 years, excluding newborns) with choledochal cyst from 2016 to 2018 based on ICD-10 codes. Patients were stratified by operative approach (open vs. lap). Demographics, operative management, and complications were compared using standard statistical tests. Results were weighted for national estimates.ResultsCholedochal cyst excision was performed in 577 children (75% female) via lap (28%) and open (72%) surgical approaches. Patients undergoing an open resection experienced longer index hospital length of stay (LOS), higher total cost, and more complications. Anastomotic technique differed by approach, with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) more often utilized with open cases (86% vs. 29%) and hepaticoduodenostomy (HD) more common with laparoscopic procedures (71% vs. 15%), both p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in post-operative cholangitis or mortality.ConclusionsAlthough utilized less frequently than an open approach, laparoscopic choledochal cyst resection is safe in pediatric patients and is associated with shorter LOS, lower costs, and fewer complications. HD anastomosis is more commonly performed during laparoscopic procedures, whereas RYHJ more commonly used with the open approach. While HD is associated with more short-term gastrointestinal dysfunction than RYHJ, the latter is more commonly associated with sepsis, wound infection, and respiratory dysfunction.Level of evidenceLevel III: Retrospective Comparative Study.  相似文献   

13.
BackgroundConsent conversations in pediatric surgery are essential components of pre-operative care which, when inadequate, can lead to significant adverse consequences for the child, parents, surgeon, and others in the healthcare system. The aim of this study is to explore expert consenting practice from the key stakeholders' perspective.MethodsFour senior attending pediatric surgeons obtained consent from a standardized mother of a child requiring surgery in two scenarios: a low-risk elective surgery (inguinal hernia repair – Video 1), and a high-risk emergency surgery (intestinal atresia – Video 2). All sessions were recorded. Families of children who had undergone minor or major surgery, families without medical or surgical background, and healthcare professionals were invited to view and evaluate the videos using a semi-structured questionnaire.ResultsOut of 251 distributed surveys, 56 complete responses were received. Thirty two participants (57.1%) evaluated video 1 and 24 (42.9%) evaluated. Overall, 22 (69%) respondents to video 1 and 20 (84%) respondents to video 2 were “very satisfied” with the recorded consent conversation. Qualitative responses shared common themes of valuing surgeon empathy, good surgeon communication, patient engagement, and adequate time and information. Suggestions for improvement included additional resources and visual aids, improved patient engagement, and discussion of post-operative expectations.ConclusionOur data identifies strengths and gaps in the current consent process from the perspective of patient families and providers. Identified areas for improvement in the informed consent process based on multi-stakeholder input will guide the planned development of a consenting educational video resource.Level of EvidenceIV.  相似文献   

14.
BackgroundMany breast cancer clinical trials with PARPi have been completed or are currently carried out, either by monotherapy or combined with chemotherapy. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of PARPi in breast cancer patients as compared to chemotherapy.MethodsA comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, conference meetings and clinical trial registry was performed. The primary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR). The secondary outcome was safety profile. The comparative effects were measured using hazard ratio (HR) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on types of intervention and baseline characteristics of patients.ResultsSix RCTs (n = 1953) were included. Two RCTs were recognized as high risk. PARPi was associated with an improved PFS (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.56–0.74), OS (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.73–1.01), and a higher ORR (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.05–1.82). PARPi, however, significantly increased risk of grade 3–4 thrombocytopenia (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06–2.52). Monotherapy was observed with lower risk of disease progression and higher ORR rate than combination therapy, 0.56 to 0.65 and 2.21 to 1.05, respectively. For patients without prior platinum treatment, PARPi significantly improved PFS (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52–0.79).ConclusionsPARPi was observed with a significantly improved efficacy in aspects of PFS and ORR, but also higher risk of grade 3–4 thrombocytopenia as compared to chemotherapy. PARPi was a better choice for patients who had not received previous platinum treatment.  相似文献   

15.
BackgroundThe Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic provided a natural experiment to study the effect of social distancing on the risk of developing Hirschsprung's Associated Enterocolitis (HAEC).MethodsUsing the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS), a retrospective cohort study of children (<18 years) with Hirschsprung's Disease (HSCR) across 47 United States children's hospitals was performed. The primary outcome was HAEC admissions per 10,000 patient-days. The exposure (COVID-19) was defined as April 2020–December 2021. The unexposed (historical control) period was April 2018–December 2019. Secondary outcomes included sepsis, bowel perforation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality, and length of stay.ResultsOverall, we included 5707 patients with HSCR during the study period. There were 984 and 834 HAEC admissions during the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, respectively (2.6 vs. 1.9 HAEC admissions per 10,000 patient-days, incident rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.74 [0.67, 0.81], p < 0.001). Compared to pre-pandemic, those with HAEC during the pandemic were younger (median [IQR]: 566 [162, 1430] days pandemic vs. 746 [259, 1609] days pre-pandemic, p < 0.001) and more likely to live in the lowest quartile of median household income zip codes (24% pandemic vs. 19% pre-pandemic, p = 0.02). There were no significant differences in rates of sepsis (6.1% pandemic vs. 6.1% pre-pandemic, p > 0.9), bowel perforation (1.3% pandemic vs. 1.2% pre-pandemic, p = 0.8), ICU admissions (9.6% pandemic vs. 12% pre-pandemic, p = 0.2), mortality (0.5% pandemic vs. 0.6% pre-pandemic, p = 0.8), or length of stay (median [interquartile range]: 4 [(Pastor et al., 2009; Gosain and Brinkman, 2015) 2,112,11 days pandemic vs. 5 [(Pastor et al., 2009; Tang et al., 2020) 2,102,10 days pre-pandemic, p = 0.4).ConclusionsThe COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significantly decreased incidence of HAEC admissions across US children's hospitals. Possible etiologies such as social distancing should be explored.Level of evidenceII.  相似文献   

16.
BackgroundThe optimal timing of surgical repair for infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support remains controversial. The risk of surgical bleeding is considered by many centers as a primary factor in determining the preferred timing of CDH repair for infants requiring ECMO support. This study compares surgical bleeding following CDH repair on ECMO in early versus delayed fashion.MethodsA retrospective review of 146 infants who underwent CDH repair while on ECMO support from 1995 to 2021. Early repair occurred during the first 48 h after ECMO cannulation (ER) and delayed repair after 48 h (DR). Surgical bleeding was defined by the requirement of reoperative intervention for hemostasis or decompression.Results102 infants had ER and 44 infants DR. Surgical bleeding was more frequent in the DR group (36% vs 5%, p < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 11.7 (95% CI: 3.48–39.3, p < 0.001). Blood urea nitrogen level on the day of repair was significantly elevated among those who bled (median 63 mg/dL, IQR 20–85) vs. those who did not (median 9 mg/dL, IQR 7–13) (p < 0.0001). Duration of ECMO support was shorter in the ER group (median 13 vs 18 days, p = 0.005). Survival was not statistically different between the two groups (ER 60% vs. DR 57%, p = 0.737).ConclusionWe demonstrate a significantly lower incidence of bleeding and shorter duration of ECMO with early CDH repair. Azotemia was a strong risk factor for surgical bleeding associated with delayed CDH repair on ECMO.Level of evidenceLevel III cohort study.  相似文献   

17.
IntroductionMucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare malignancy of primary endobronchial lesions in children. Early diagnosis is crucial for the disease, but it is often misdiagnosed as asthma or lung infection. Chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy are the most important diagnostic tools. Surgical resection is the current treatment of choice for low-grade MEC. In the past, lobectomy, sleeve lobectomy, or segmental resections were the most standard surgeries. Endoscopic treatment was used for lung preservation and effectual removal of the lesions.MethodsA retrospective study of pediatric patients with primary endobronchial lesions who underwent rigid bronchoscopic laser ablation since 2010 was conducted. Pre-operative images, endoscopic pictures, post-operative images, histological analyses, and patients’ clinical conditions were recorded and illustrated.ResultsFour patients were enrolled. Three patients presented initially with cough or hemoptysis. The lesion sites were the bronchus of the left upper lobe, left lower lobe, left main bronchus, and trachea. All patients underwent bronchoscopic laser ablation for tumor excision without anatomical resection. No major surgical complications were encountered. All patients survived without recurrence after a mean postoperative follow-up of 4.5 years (3–6 years).ConclusionVideo-assisted rigid endoscopic laser ablation for pediatric low-grade endobronchial MEC is a feasible, effective, and safe method. Close follow-up is essential for lung preservation management.Evidence levelLevel IV.Type of studyCase series with no comparison group.  相似文献   

18.
BackgroundWomen with pregnancies complicated by fetal surgical anomalies experience significant psychosocial burden. There remains a need to determine the impact that socioeconomic status has on maternal empowerment, anxiety, and depression.MethodsA survey study was conducted from 5/2021–5/2022 to quantify empowerment, anxiety, and depression in women with fetal surgical anomalies. Surveys administered included Pregnancy Related Empowerment Scale (PRES), Patient Empowerment Scale (PES), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Two-sample t-test was used to compare survey scores across socioeconomic groups.ResultsSeventy-four patients were recruited. Mothers more commonly preferred English as primary language (n = 61, 82%) and were non-Hispanic (n = 43, 58%). Lower empowerment scores were observed in Hispanic mothers (PRES, p = 0.03; PES, p = 0.04) and mothers who preferred Spanish (PRES, p = 0.04; PES, p = 0.06) as primary language. Both non-Hispanic (p = 0.88) and English speaking (p = 0.75) women had higher STAI scores, but neither was significantly different. DASS was not significantly higher for Hispanic (p = 0.79) or Spanish speaking mothers (p = 0.47).ConclusionHispanic and Spanish speaking women with pregnancies complicated by fetal surgical anomalies have significantly decreased empowerment scores. These findings suggest a need for development of culturally competent, targeted interventions to improve maternal empowerment in this high-risk population.Level of EvidenceLevel II.Type of StudyCross-Sectional Survey Study.  相似文献   

19.
BackgroundEffective patient-surgeon communication is vital in pediatric surgical practice. However, family (including child) preferences for the format and content of risk communication information are largely unknown. In order to optimize the shared-decision making process, this scoping review explored the family-preferred methods for risk communication in pediatric surgery.MethodsA search was conducted in 7 databases from inception until June 2020 to identify family risk communication preferences in pediatric surgical patients, with language restricted to English and French. Two independent reviewers completed the screening in Rayyan software following PRISMA protocol. Included publications were reviewed for data extraction, analyzed, and assessed for risk of bias using standardized instruments.ResultsA total of 6370 publications were retrieved, out of which 70 were included. Studies were predominantly from ENT (30.0%), general surgery (15.7%), and urology (11.4%). Family-preferred risk communication methods were classified as visual, verbal, technology-based, written, decision aids or other. Technological (32.4%) and written tools (29.7%) were most commonly chosen by families as their preferred risk communication methods. Written tools were frequently used in general surgery and urology, while technology-based tools were widely used in ENT. Most studies were cross-sectional and had a significant risk of bias.ConclusionEliciting families’ preferences for risk communication methods is critical for the implementation of shared decision-making. Different risk communication media appear to be preferred within specific surgical domains. To further improve shared-decision making in pediatric surgery, the development and usage of robust, validated risk communication tools are necessary.Level of evidenceLevel IV (Scoping Review).  相似文献   

20.
BackgroundDespite several reports, there are still conflicting data on the influence of ethnicity on mortality rates associated with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We aimed to get further insights into the effect of race on mortality following CABG by performing a risk adjusted meta-analysis.MethodsRelevant studies were searched on PubMed, Embase, BioMed Central, and the Cochrane Central register. Pairwise meta-analysis was used to estimate the relative risk of hospital death of black, Hispanic, and Asian patients using white patients as reference. Risk adjusted meta-analytic estimates were obtained using generic inverse variance methods with random effect model.ResultsA total of 28 studies were selected for analysis. A total of 21 studies reported on hospital mortality in black (n = 222,892) versus white (n = 3,884,043) patients, 7 studies reported on Hispanic (n = 91,256) versus white (n = 1,458,524) and 9 studies reported on Asian (n = 27,820) versus white (n = 1,081,642). When compared with white patients, adjusted risk of hospital death was significantly greater for black patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.39; P < .001), and not statistically different for Asian (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.99-1.77; P = .05) and Hispanic patients (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.94-1.23; P = .26). Meta-regression showed a significant trend toward lower mortality rates in most recent series in both black (P = .02) and white (P = .0007) and Asian (P = .01) but not for Hispanic (P = .41). However, as mortality rates were lower across the different races, the relative disadvantage between the study groups persisted, which may explain the lack of interaction between study period and race effect on mortality for black (adjusted P = .09), Asian (adjusted P = .63), and Hispanic (adjusted P = .97) patients.ConclusionsThe present meta-analysis showed that despite progress is being made in lowering in-hospital mortality rates among the major racial/ethnic groups, ethnical disparities in hospital mortality after CABG remain.  相似文献   

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