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Aim: The impact of hepatitis B e‐antigen (HBeAg) on recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection remains controversial. This meta‐analysis aimed to determine whether the presence of HBeAg influenced the recurrence of HCC after curative resection. Methods: We performed a meta‐analysis including six studies (a total of 865 patients) to assess the effect of HBeAg on recurrence of HCC after curative resection. The pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated using a random or fixed effects model. PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published from 1990 to March 2012. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias estimate were also performed to evaluate the potential risk bias in the overall results of pooled analysis. Results: Our results showed that the presence of HBeAg significantly increased the overall HCC recurrence risk after curative resection (OR = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–2.40; P = 0.01). Pooled data from three studies on the risk of early recurrence among HBeAg positive patients compared with HBeAg negative patients showed an increased risk of early recurrence (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.02–2.19; P = 0.04). However, there was no significant difference in late HCC recurrence between HBeAg positive and negative patients (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.62–2.19; P = 0.62). Conclusion: The present study suggested that HBeAg positive patients had a significantly higher risk of early recurrence after curative resection of HCC.  相似文献   
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The goal of this study was to compare the lexical spelling performance of children and adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) in two contrasting writing situations: a dictation of isolated words (a classic evaluative situation) and a narrative of a personal event (a communicative situation). Twenty-four children with SLI and 48 typically developing children participated in the study, split into two age groups: 7–11 and 12–18 years of age. Although participants with SLI made more spelling errors per word than typically developing participants of the same chronological age, there was a smaller difference between the two groups in the narratives than in the dictations. Two of the findings are particularly noteworthy: (1) Between 12 and 18 years of age, in communicative narration, the number of spelling errors of the SLI group was not different from that of the typically developing group. (2) In communicative narration, the participants with SLI did not make specific spelling errors (phonologically unacceptable), contrary to what was shown in the dictation. From an educational perspective or that of a remediation program, it must be stressed that the communicative narration provides children—and especially adolescents—with SLI an opportunity to demonstrate their improved lexical spelling abilities. Furthermore, the results encourage long-term lexical spelling education, as adolescents with SLI continue to show improvement between 12 and 18 years of age.  相似文献   
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During brain development, many factors influence the assembly and final positioning of cortical neurons, and this process is essential for proper circuit formation and normal brain function. Among many important extrinsic factors that guide the maturation of embryonic cortical neurons, the secreted neurotransmitter GABA has been proposed to influence both their migratory behaviour and their terminal differentiation. The full extent of the short‐term and long‐term changes in brain patterning and function caused by modulators of the GABA system is not known. In this study, we specifically investigated whether diazepam, a commonly used benzodiazepine that modulates the GABAA receptor, alters neuronal positioning in vivo, and whether this can lead to lasting effects on brain function. We found that fetal exposure to diazepam did not change cell positioning within the embryonic day (E)14.5 mouse cerebral cortex, but significantly altered neuron positioning within the E18.5 cortex. In adult mice, diazepam treatment affected the distribution of cortical interneurons that express parvalbumin or calretinin, and also led to a decrease in the numbers of calretinin‐expressing interneurons. In addition, we observed that neonatal exposure to diazepam altered the sensitivity of mice to a proconvulsant challenge. Therefore, exposure of the fetal brain to benzodiazepines has consequences for the positioning of neurons and cortical network excitability.  相似文献   
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The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) is an important area of the endogenous pain-regulating system, in which 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are 2 main transmitters involved in pain modulation. However, whether 5-HT and GABA are colocalized is poorly understood. By using glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mouse, we confirmed the colocalization of 5-HT and GABA in the RVM, with a main distribution in the raphe magnus nucleus and paragigantocellular reticular nucleus. Interestingly, more than half (51.6%) of the 5-HT/GABA-immunoreactive (ir) neurons expressed neurokinin-1 receptors (NK-1R) and one-third (30.1%) of the 5-HT/GABA/NK-1R-ir neurons projected to the spinal cord, suggesting that substance P (SP) should regulate the activity of 5-HT/GABA-ir spinal cord-projecting neurons. By combining retrograde and anterograde tracing methods, we observed that the cuneiform nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and lateral periaqueductal gray are the main origin nuclei for the SP-ir fibers and terminals in the RVM. Finally, after formalin injection into the mice hind paw, 29.2% SP-ir RVM-projecting neurons from supra-RVM nuclei and 33.1% NK-1R-ir spinal cord-projecting neurons in the RVM were activated. The present study provides potent morphological evidence that 5-HT and GABA are coexistent in RVM-spinal cord-projecting neurons that are also regulated by SPergic projections.PerspectiveThe results will greatly enhance our understanding for the modulation of nociceptive information in the descending pain-regulating system.  相似文献   
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ObjectiveRetrospective data analyses have suggested that carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) may have a predictive role in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) receiving high dose interleukin-2 or sorafenib. We examined the predictive value of CAIX in estimating treatment outcome in patients receiving sorafenib vs. placebo as part of the Treatment Approaches in Renal Cancer Global Evaluation Trial (TARGET) study.Materials and methodsParaffin embedded tumor tissues were collected from 133 patients from the TARGET study (n = 903). The percentage of CAIX-positive cells was assessed by a single pathologist. The impact of CAIX expression on progression-free survival (PFS, primary endpoint) and tumor shrinkage (TS, secondary endpoint) was analyzed.ResultsClinical characteristics were similarly distributed between patients with low vs. high CAIX staining, as well as patients with available CAIX data vs. not. Median PFS for patients with high CAIX vs. low CAIX expression was 5.5 and 5.4 months, respectively, on the sorafenib arm (P = 0.97), and 1.5 and 1.7 months on the placebo arm (P = 0.76). Median TS for patients with high CAIX status was ?14.9% vs. ?12.6% in patients with low CAIX status (P = 0.63) on the sorafenib arm, and +1.3% (high CAIX) vs. +4.8% (low CAIX) in patients on the placebo arm (P = 0.60).ConclusionsDespite suggestive retrospective evidence, data from the TARGET study did not find CAIX expression status to be either predictive of clinical benefit for treatment with sorafenib or of prognostic value in patients with metastatic ccRCC following cytokine therapy.  相似文献   
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[摘要]目的:基于网络药理学方法探讨麻黄-苦杏仁药对(Ephedra Herba and Amygdalus Communis Vas couplet medicines,EHACV)治疗支气管肺炎的作用机制。方法:基于中药系统药理学技术平台(TCMSP)获取麻黄-苦杏仁药对化学成分及其对应靶点,通过CTD、人类基因数据库(GeneCards)获取支气管肺炎相关靶点,将药物靶点与疾病靶点映射得到麻黄-苦杏仁药对作用于支气管肺炎的预测靶点。运用Cytoscape软件系统构建药对成分-疾病靶点网络和蛋白互作(PPI)网络,最后进行GO和KEGG富集分析。结果:从麻黄-苦杏仁药对中筛选出48个活性化合物,去重后得到145个药物靶点,与支气管肺炎疾病靶点取交集进行相映射,共得到108个共有作用靶点,如AKT1、MAPK3、JUN、VEGFA等,KEGG富集分析主要涉及白细胞介素(IL)-17信号通路、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)信号通路、血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)信号通路等。结论:运用网络药理学方法预测了麻黄-苦杏仁药对治疗支气管肺炎可能的疾病靶点和生物过程,为分子机制的验证提供思路和依据。  相似文献   
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