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The association of overweight and obesity with premenopausal breast cancer remained unclear, ethnicity could play a role. A MEDLINE and PUBMED search of all studies on obesity and premenopausal breast cancer published from 2000 to 2010 was conducted. Dose‐response meta‐analysis was used to determine the risk of premenopausal breast cancer associated with different anthropometric measurements in different ethnic groups. For body mass index (BMI), each 5 kg m?2 increase was inversely associated with the risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 0.97). After stratification by ethnicity, the inverse association remained significant only among Africans (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.98) and Caucasians (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.95). In contrast, among Asian women, a significant positive association was observed. For waist‐to‐hip ratio (WHR), each 0.1 unit increase was positively associated with premenopausal breast cancer (RR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16); the largest effect was detected in Asian women (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.24), while small effects of 5% and 6% were observed in African and Caucasian women, respectively. Our results suggest the importance of considering both fat distribution and ethnicity when studying premenopausal breast cancer.  相似文献   
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AimTo retrospectively study the frequency and magnitude of complications associated with computed tomography (CT) colonography in clinical practice.MethodsA questionnaire on complications of CT colonography was sent to Italian public radiology departments identified as practicing CT colonography with a reasonable level of training. The frequency of complications and possible risk factors were retrospectively determined. Responses were collated and row frequencies determined. A multivariate analysis of the factors causing adverse events was also performed.Results40,121 examinations were performed in13 centers during the study period. No deaths were reported. Bowel perforations occurred in 0.02% (7 exams). All perforations were asymptomatic and occurred in patients undergoing manual insufflation. Five perforations (71%) occurred in procedures performed following a recent colonoscopy. There was no significant difference between perforations associated with rectal balloon (0.017%) and those that were not (0.02%). Complications related to vasovagal reaction (either with or without spasmolytic) occurred in 0.16% (63 exams). All vasovagal reactions resolved in less than 3 h, without any sequelae.ConclusionsPerforation rate at CT colonography in Italy is comparable with elsewhere in the world, occurring regardless of the experience of radiology centers. Although the risk is very small, it may not be negligible when compared with the risk of diagnostic colonoscopy.  相似文献   
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Lung nodules after lung transplantation most often represent infection or post‐transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the allograft. Conversely, native lung nodules in single lung transplant recipients are more likely to be bronchogenic carcinoma. We present a patient who developed native lung cavitary nodules. Although malignancy was anticipated, evaluation revealed probable Phaeoacremonium parasiticum infection. Phaeoacremonium parasiticum is a dematiaceous fungus first described as a cause of soft tissue infection in a renal transplant patient. Lung nodules have not been previously described and this is the first case, to our knowledge, of P. parasiticum identified after lung transplantation.  相似文献   
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Kidney transplant recipients have a heightened risk of developing neoplasms. Immunosuppressive treatments decrease the incidence of transplant rejection but increase the risk of infections, including BK virus (BKV). This infection is acquired in childhood and remains latent in the renal and urinary epithelium. In cases of immunodeficiency, BKV has been implicated as a tumor virus, but the role of BKV in cancer is a controversial topic and is difficult to determine. In the tumor cells, it is possible to detect fragments of the viral genome that could alter the control mechanisms of the cell cycle and DNA repair. We report the case of a kidney transplant recipient who developed BKV nephropathy and carcinoma of the bladder, supporting a possible role for BKV in the oncogenic pathway in this clinical setting, but the role of BKV in cancer remains a controversial topic and difficult to determine.  相似文献   
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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is associated with JC polyomavirus (JCV) infection of central nervous system oligodendrocytes resulting in demyelinization and progressive focal neurologic deficits. Reactivation of dormant JCV occurs in the setting of immunosuppression, most commonly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or hematological malignancies. PML has also been reported in solid organ transplant recipients. We report the case of a 61‐year‐old man after bilateral lung transplantation for chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis who presented with leg weakness, cognitive decline, and expressive aphasia at 5 months post transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging and brain biopsy were consistent with PML. Treatment attempt with cytarabine was unsuccessful, and immunomodulation resulted in recurrent grade A3 rejection. The difficulty of managing PML in lung transplant patients is highlighted by the lack of directed therapy and risk of graft rejection or failure with attempts at decreasing immunosuppression.  相似文献   
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Despite the adoption of antifungal prophylaxis, fungal infections remain a significant concern in lung transplant recipients. Indeed, some concern exists that such prophylaxis may increase the risk of infection with drug‐resistant fungal organisms. Here, we describe a case of disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection, presenting as pericarditis, which developed in a lung transplant patient receiving prophylactic voriconazole for 8 months. The epidemiology and clinical presentation of S. prolificans infections are reviewed, and controversies surrounding antifungal prophylaxis and the development of resistant infections are discussed.  相似文献   
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