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PURPOSE: The literature regarding seizure outcome and prognostic factors for outcome after temporal lobectomy is often contradictory. This is problematic, as these data are the basis on which surgical decisions and counseling are founded. We sought to clarify inconsistencies in the literature by critically examining the methods and findings of recent research. METHODS: A systematic review of the 126 articles concerning temporal lobectomy outcome published from 1991 was conducted. RESULTS: Major methodologic issues in the literature were heterogeneous definitions of seizure outcome, a predominance of cross-sectional analyses (83% of studies), and relatively short follow-up in many studies. The range of seizure freedom was wide (33-93%; median, 70%); there was a tendency for better outcome in more recent studies. Of 63 factors analyzed, good outcome appeared to be associated with several factors including preoperative hippocampal sclerosis, anterior temporal localization of interictal epileptiform activity, absence of preoperative generalized seizures, and absence of seizures in the first postoperative week. A number of factors had no association with outcome (e.g., age at onset, preoperative seizure frequency, and extent of lateral resection). CONCLUSIONS: Apparently conflicting results in the literature may be explained by the methodologic issues identified here (e.g., sample size, selection criteria and method of analysis). To obtain a better understanding of patterns of long-term outcome, increased emphasis on longitudinal analytic methods is required. The systematic review of possible risk factors for seizure recurrence provides a basis for planning further research.  相似文献
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It has been suggested that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the striatum can differentiate between parkinsonian syndromes. The present study aims to examine this claim by performing a systematic review of the existing literature. A MEDLINE search was performed between 1966 and October 1999, along with searches of conference abstracts and reference lists of papers identified. Eleven groups have used MRS to examine metabolite ratios in the striatum in Parkinsonian syndromes. A number of these have shown reduced N-acetylaspartate/choline (NAA/Cho) and/or N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios in either idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal degeneration. However, the heterogeneity in the results precludes the use of any of these findings in differential diagnosis at the present time. The only group to use absolute metabolite concentrations rather than ratios showed that the decreased NAA/Cho ratio in IPD was because of an increase in choline which is of uncertain biological significance. Further large multicentre trials are required using absolute quantitation of tissue metabolite concentrations and a standardized technique. The patients entering such studies must be rigorously assessed to establish the diagnosis of the type of parkinsonism as accurately as possible. Any discriminatory abnormality must be tested in a large prospective study of newly presenting parkinsonian patients with long-term clinical follow up and ultimate pathological confirmation of the diagnosis as far as possible.  相似文献
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Fundamental pathological lesions in vascular dementia   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
This review concerns the fundamental cerebral lesions in cases of vascular dementia. Extracerebral vascular alterations are dominated by atherosclerosis with or without thrombosis. In addition, occlusion of extracerebral arteries can be induced by thrombo-embolism and in rare cases by other vascular diseases, chiefly arteritis. Intracerebral microangiopathies are usually of arteriolosclerotic or hyalinotic types in which there is degeneration of smooth muscle cells of the media and deposition of components of extracellular matrix, chiefly collagens. Ageing, chronic hypertension, hyperlipidemias and diabetes are important factors inducing vascular lesions. The vascular lesions, often combined with systemic factors, may produce various ischemic and edematous alterations of the brain parenchyma. Occlusion and obliteration of arteries (macroangiopathy) are associated with large infarcts, whereas microangiopathy may cause lacunar infarcts and some forms of white matter degeneration. Cases of vascular dementia usually present many types of lesions in the brain parenchyma and its arterial supply. The extent and location of the injuries differ considerably from case to case. Location o(f the lesions, volume of destroyed tissue, multiplicity and bilateral occurrence are most important parameters underlying the clinical manifestations in vascular dementia. A strategic location of a small injury is in some cases of particular importance.  相似文献
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Pharmacologic treatment for the symptoms of painful neuropathy has been problematic, because there has been limited understanding of the underlying etiologies and systemic levels that an effective dose can have on multiple side effects. The use of molecular methods, such as gene deletion from knockout mice and cellular minipumps for delivery of biologic antinociceptive molecules, has led to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the induction of intractable neuropathic pain. The initiation of an excitatory cascade after injury or disease leads to the induction of various second messenger systems, loss or down-regulation of the endogenous inhibitory spinal GABA system and central sensitization, causing such pain. The development and use of cellular minipumps, immortalized cell lines bioengineered to secrete various antinociceptive molecules for the reversal of neuropathic pain, makes cellular therapy a strategy for clinical use in the next few years. The development of molecular "disimmortalization" technologies will make the use of such engineered cell lines safe for human use. Direct somatic gene transfer for neuropathic pain will eventually overcome the problems associated with transplantation of non-autologous and xenogenic cells. These virus-mediated methods, although at the early stages of evolution and use, offer large-scale production of biologic agents that can be conveniently and confidently used for the long-term relief of chronic neuropathic pain in a clinical setting, without systemic effects or surgical interventions.  相似文献
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Effectiveness of acupuncture for stroke: a systematic review   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
Background Acupuncture has been suggested as a treatment for stroke rehabilitation, but the question whether it is effective has not been answered satisfactorily. Purpose To summarise and critically review all randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for stroke. Methods Four independent computerised literature searches (in MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, and CISCOM data bases) were conducted in June 1999. All randomised-controlled trials that compared any form of needle insertion acupuncture to any form of non-acupuncture control intervention in the treatment of human stroke patients were included. Data were extracted independently by two authors and arbitrated by a third. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Jadad score. Results Nine randomised controlled trials with a total sample size of 538 patients were included. Two studies were assessor blind, one was subject blind, and one was assessor and subject blind. Two studies exclusively used manual acupuncture, five only electro-acupuncture, and two used both. Outcome measures used were Scandinavian Stroke Scale, Chinese Stroke Scale or Recovery Scale, Barthel index, Nottingham Health Profile, Motor function, balance, and days in hospital. Of the nine studies, six yielded a positive result suggesting that acupuncture is effective, and three produced a negative finding implying that acupuncture is not superior to control treatment. Only two studies obtained a Jadad score of more than 3. These methodologically best trials showed no significant effect of acupuncture. Conclusion Based on the evidence of rigorous randomised controlled trials, there is no compelling evidence to show that acupuncture is effective in stroke rehabilitation. Further, better-designed studies are warranted. Received: 20 September 2000 / Received in revised form: 16 February 2001 / Accepted: 13 February 2001  相似文献
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PURPOSE: To evaluate the methodology of incidence studies of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures and to assess the value of their findings by summarizing their results. METHODS: A Medline literature search from January 1966 to December 1999 was conducted. In each selected study, key methodologic items such as case definition and study design were evaluated. Furthermore, a quantitative meta-analysis of the incidence data was performed. RESULTS: Forty incidence studies met the inclusion criteria. There was considerable heterogeneity in study methodology, and the methodologic quality score was generally low. The median incidence rate of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures was 47.4 and 56 per 100,000, respectively. The age-specific incidence of epilepsy was high in those aged 60 years or older, but was highest in childhood. Males had a slightly higher incidence of epilepsy (median, 50.7/100,000) than did females (median, 46.2/100,000), and partial seizures seemed to occur more often than generalized seizures. Developing countries had a higher incidence rate of epilepsy (median, 68.7/100,000) than did industrialized countries (median, 43.4/100,000). Similar results were found for unprovoked seizures. The incidence of epilepsy over time appears to decrease in children, whereas it increases in the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: The age-specific incidence of epilepsy showed a bimodal distribution with the highest peak in childhood. No definitive conclusions could be reached for the incidence of unprovoked seizures and other specific incidence rates of epilepsy. More incidence studies with an adequate study methodology are needed to explore geographic variations and time trends of the incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures.  相似文献
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Functional neuroimaging studies of emotion processing consistently report amygdala activation. Most of these studies observed lateralized amygdala activity, indicative of a clear hemisphere-specific processing difference between the left and right amygdalae. Because individual studies use varying paradigms and are limited by statistical power and sensitivity, it has remained unclear whether the left or the right amygdala is more consistently involved in emotional processing. By combining results across 54 fMRI and PET studies in a metaanalysis, we sought to establish if a common pattern of lateralized amygdala activation exists. Our findings indicate that across studies, the left amygdala is more often activated than the right amygdala, suggesting different roles for the left and right amygdalae in emotional processing. Further analysis showed that this predominant left amygdala activation is not significantly related to stimulus type, task instructions, differential habituation rates of the left and right amygdalae or elaborate processing. The results are discussed in relation to methodological and theoretical issues regarding functional brain asymmetry.  相似文献
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