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PurposeTo examine the risk of femoral access site complications in patients undergoing carotid stent placement who were treated with a closure device compared with patients who were not treated with a closure device.Materials and MethodsA national, multihospital patient database, the Premier Perspective database, was used to identify patients hospitalized for carotid stent placement from 2006–2011. To reduce potential selection bias, a propensity score was generated for each patient using relevant clinical variables. Propensity score adjustment via 1:1 matching was performed on patients who did and did not receive a closure device. Primary outcomes were minor femoral access site complications and major complications requiring procedural intervention. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, stroke, and blood transfusion.ResultsAmong 12,287 patients who underwent carotid stent placement at 217 hospitals, 6,398 (52%) received a closure device on the day of the procedure. After propensity score matching, patients who received a closure device had a lower likelihood of minor access site complications (4.2% vs 5.4%; odds ratio = 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.55–0.93; P = .0071) compared with patients who did not receive a closure device; however, this difference was small and likely not clinically relevant. Both groups had a similar risk of major access site complications (P = .32), in-hospital mortality (P = .0520), and stroke (P = .31).ConclusionsUse of a closure device was not associated with a substantially reduced risk of major adverse events after carotid stent placement and was associated with only a small improvement in minor access site complications.  相似文献   
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BackgroundLiterature suggests that sex steroid hormones may modify the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the potential effect of reproductive factors on the clinical features of idiopathic PD (IPD) patients.MethodsAll IPD female patients admitted to and evaluated at our Institute over a 12-month period were included in the present cross-sectional study. We investigated the effect of the following parameters by multivariate linear regression analysis: age at menarche, age at menopause, length of fertile life, duration of exposure to endogenous estrogens and cumulative length of pregnancies, use of contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy.ResultsIn total, 579 patients were evaluated and 497 reported menopause before PD onset. In this population, age at PD onset was positively associated with age at menarche and at menopause, length of fertile life and duration of estrogen exposure. Moreover, UPDRS motor score was inversely associated with age at menopause, length of fertile life and duration of estrogen exposure. Increasing age at menarche was also associated with predominant resting tremor at PD onset. In models refitted on patients with early PD (disease duration <5 years; N = 226) all the associations found were confirmed. The relationship between surrogates of estrogen exposure and UPDRS motor score actually became more significant.ConclusionsOur observations support the concept that hormonal exposure of the nigro-striatal network during life may influence its susceptibility to degenerative stimuli in later life, but the association does not seem to be unique? unidirectional. In particular, increased severity of PD signs correlates with shorter duration of estrogen exposure. The underlying mechanisms need to be clarified.  相似文献   
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Aim: To share an experience of introducing Delirium scoring into a Cardiothoracic Critical Care Unit and the lessons learnt. Background: Delirium has serious consequences leading to increased length of stay in hospital, the possible development of dementia with the associated need for long‐term care and even death. It is therefore vital that the Critical Care nurses are able to prevent, recognize and manage delirium. Data sources and methods: 108 patients who were admitted over a 6 week period were audited and their delirium score, documentation and treatment plans were reviewed. Results: 21% of patients experienced delirium during their stay on Cardiothoracic Critical Care and hypoactive delirium was the most prevalent subtype. Of the three patients who stayed more than 20 days on critical care all suffered with delirium at some point during their stay. Documentation of delirium by both Nursing and Medical staff occurred in less than 50% of patients. Conclusions: The introduction of delirium scoring and audit of its practice has highlighted the incidence of delirium in critically ill patients and has resulted in;
  • Improved quality of care by development of a delirium care bundle
  • Improved recognition of delirium
  • Instigation of practices to prevent and treat delirium
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ObjectiveTo evaluate the participants in the Mayo Clinic Biobank for their representativeness to the entire Employee and Community Health program (ECH) primary care population with regard to hospital utilization.Patients and MethodsParticipants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Biobank from April 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010, were linked to the ECH population. These individuals were categorized into risk tiers (0-4) on the basis of the number of health conditions present as of December 31, 2010. Outcomes were ascertained through December 31, 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for risk of hospitalization, emergency department (ED) visits, and for risk of hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visits were estimated.ResultsThe 8927 Biobank participants were part of ECH (N=84,872). Compared with the entire ECH population, the Biobank-ECH participants were more likely to be female (64.3% vs 54.6%), older (median age, 58 years vs 47 years), and categorized to tier 0 (6.4% vs 24.0%). There were strong positive associations between tier (tier 4 vs combined tiers 0 and 1) and risk of hospitalization (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 4.6-7.5) and ED visits (HR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.2-6.8) among Biobank-ECH participants. Similar associations for risk of hospitalization (HR, 8.5; 95% CI, 7.8-9.3) and ED visits (HR, 6.9; 95% CI, 6.4-7.5) were observed for the entire ECH population.ConclusionAlthough the Biobank-ECH participants were older and had more chronic conditions compared with the overall ECH population, the associations of risk tier with utilization outcomes were similar, supporting the use of the Biobank participants to assess biomarkers for health care outcomes in the primary care setting.  相似文献   
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