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Hyperosmotic tear stimulates human corneal nerve endings, activates ocular immune response, and elicits dry-eye symptoms. A soft contact lens (SCL) covers the cornea preventing it from experiencing direct tear evaporation and the resulting blink-periodic salinity increases. For the cornea to experience hyperosmolarity due to tear evaporation, salt must transport across the SCL to the post-lens tear film (PoLTF) bathing the cornea. Consequently, limited salt transport across a SCL potentially protects the ocular surface from hyperosmotic tear. In addition, despite lens-wear discomfort sharing common sensations to dry eye, no correlation is available between measured tear hyperosmolarity and SCL-wear discomfort. Lack of documentation is likely because clinical measurements of tear osmolarity during lens wear do not interrogate the tear osmolarity of the PoLTF that actually overlays the cornea. Rather, tear osmolarity is clinically measured in the tear meniscus. For the first time, we mathematically quantify tear osmolarity in the PoLTF and show that it differs significantly from the clinically measured tear-meniscus osmolarity. We show further that aqueous-deficient dry eye and evaporative dry eye both exacerbate the hyperosmolarity of the PoLTF. Nevertheless, depending on lens salt-transport properties (i.e., diffusivity, partition coefficient, and thickness), a SCL can indeed protect against corneal hyperosmolarity by reducing PoLTF salinity to below that of the ocular surface during no-lens wear. Importantly, PoLTF osmolarity for dry-eye patients can be reduced to that of normal eyes with no-lens wear provided that the lens exhibits a low lens-salt diffusivity. Infrequent blinking increases PoLTF osmolarity consistent with lens-wear discomfort. Judicious design of SCL material salt-transport properties can ameliorate corneal hyperosmolarity. Our results confirm the importance of PoLTF osmolarity during SCL wear and indicate a possible relation between PoLTF osmolarity and contact-lens discomfort.  相似文献   
3.
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. The use of topical eye drops to reduce intraocular pressure remains the mainstay treatment. These eye drops frequently contain preservatives designed to ensure sterility of the compound. A growing number of clinical and experimental studies report the detrimental effects of not only these preservatives but also the active pharmaceutical compounds on the ocular surface, with resultant tear film instability and dry eye disease. Herein, we critically appraise the published literature exploring the effects of preservatives and pharmaceutical compounds on the ocular surface.  相似文献   
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ABSTRACT

Objective: Dry eye is reported to be associated with several neurological diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the patients with hemiplegia after stroke for dry eye and compare their results with a control group.

Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with hemiplegia and 45 individuals as the control group were included in the study. Tear function tests (Schirmer and tear breakup time) and a dry eye questionnaire for dry eye symptoms (ocular surface disease index) were performed and the results of the two groups were compared.

Results: Schirmer test results were significantly lower in the post-stroke hemiplegia group compared to the control group (11.3 ± 8.2 mm and 20.6 ± 11.6 mm, respectively, p < .001). Tear breakup time results were significantly lower in the post-stroke hemiplegia group compared to the control group (7.9 ± 3.1 s and 12.1 ± 4.3 s, respectively, p < .001). Ocular surface disease index scores were not significantly different between hemiplegia and control groups (21.6 ± 20.0 and 19.8 ± 13.9, respectively, p = .635). Schirmer scores lower than 10 mm (60% and 30%, p < .001) and tear breakup time results lower than 10 s (65.6% and 28.9%, p < .001) were also higher in the hemiplegia group compared to control group.

Conclusion: We found lower Schirmer test and tear breakup time results and similar OSDI scores in hemiplegia patients compared to controls. Hemiplegia patients may have dry eye without typical symptoms. This should be taken into consideration in the follow-up and rehabilitation of post-stroke hemiplegia patients.  相似文献   
5.
<正>我国结核患者在2011年统计已达500万例,仅次于印度位居世界第二[1]。临床多见抗结核药物引起肝损害及过敏反应,对眼部的副反应关注较少[2]。笔者临床中发现部分结核患者在抗结核治疗早期可出现视物模糊、异物感、干涩及视物不持久等类似干眼的主诉,眼科常规检查未发现明显视神经病变,更多为眼表的改变。笔者观察抗结核药物对眼表的毒副反应,报道如下。1资料与方法1.1研究对象收集2012年1月—2014年10月  相似文献   
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《The ocular surface》2020,18(1):108-113
PurposeAromatase inhibitors (AIs) limit the synthesis of oestrogen in peripheral tissues thus lowering levels of oestrogen. The primary aim was to evaluate whether women treated with AIs have altered dry eye symptoms and signs. A sub-aim was to investigate whether symptoms of dry eye in postmenopausal women were associated with symptoms of non-eye pain, ocular pain and self-rated pain perception.MethodsThis cross-sectional, observational, single visit study recruited 56 postmenopausal women (mean age 64.1 + 7.9 years) and 52 undergoing AI treatment (mean age 66.6 + 9.0). Ocular symptoms (OSDI, MGD14) and pain questionnaires (PSQ, OPAS) were administered and signs of dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction were evaluated.ResultsAlmost half of each group reported dry eye symptoms, defined as OSDI>12 (48% control, 46% AI). The PSQ score was significantly higher in the AI group (p = 0.04). Neither frequency or severity of dry eye (or MGD) symptoms scores were significantly different between groups. In the AI group, meibomian gland expressibility score was worse (p = 0.003); there were no differences in any other signs. Higher OSDI scores were associated with higher OPAS eye-pain scores (r = 0.49, p < 0.001), but not OPAS non-eye pain (r = 0.09, p = 0.35). Pain perception (PSQ) showed a moderate positive association with OPAS eye-pain (r = 0.30, p = 0.003).ConclusionsIn this study elevated ocular symptoms were observed in both the AI treated and the untreated groups, with no difference between the groups. Women undergoing AI treatment for early stage breast cancer had worse meibum expressibility score and increased pain perception compared to an untreated group of women.  相似文献   
8.
A 48-year-old smoker with a history of hyperthyroidism treated 10 years prior to presentation with radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland presented to his ophthalmologist with a 2-week history of transient loss of vision in the right eye occurring for 1 to 2 hours each morning. He denied ocular pain, diplopia or change in the prominence of one or both eyes. Examination revealed 2 mm of relative proptosis on the right, bilateral temporal flare and lower lid retraction. There was minimal upper lid retraction and no evidence of lid lag. Ocular motility was full. Dilated fundoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic nerve edema, right more than left. CT of the orbit demonstrated enlargement of the extraocular muscles bilaterally with marked enlargement of the right medial rectus and left inferior rectus muscles resulting in crowding at the orbital apex bilaterally. Laboratory testing revealed the patient to be hyperthyroid. The patient was treated with high dose oral steroids followed by orbital radiation. Hyperthyroidism was managed by the patient’s primary care physician. Visual symptoms rapidly improved with oral steroids and orbital radiation. Optic nerve edema completely resolved. Repeat CT imaging demonstrated a reduction in the enlargement of the extraocular muscles with relief of bilateral optic nerve compression.  相似文献   
9.
Objective: Report efficacy findings from three clinical trials (one phase 2 and two phase 3 [OPUS-1, OPUS-2]) of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% for treatment of dry eye disease (DED).

Research design and methods: Three 84-day, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trials. Adults (≥18 years) with DED were randomized (1:1) to lifitegrast 5.0% or matching placebo. Changes from baseline to day 84 in signs and symptoms of DED were analyzed.

Main outcome measures: Phase 2, pre-specified endpoint: inferior corneal staining score (ICSS; 0–4); OPUS-1, coprimary endpoints: ICSS and visual-related function subscale (0–4 scale); OPUS-2, coprimary endpoints: ICSS and eye dryness score (EDS, VAS; 0–100).

Results: Fifty-eight participants were randomized to lifitegrast 5.0% and 58 to placebo in the phase 2 trial; 293 to lifitegrast and 295 to placebo in OPUS-1; 358 to lifitegrast and 360 to placebo in OPUS-2. In participants with mild-to-moderate baseline DED symptomatology, lifitegrast improved ICSS versus placebo in the phase 2 study (treatment effect, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.05–0.65; p?=?0.0209) and OPUS-1 (effect, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10–0.38; p?=?0.0007). Among more symptomatic participants (baseline EDS ≥40, recent artificial tear use), lifitegrast improved EDS versus placebo in a post hoc analysis of OPUS-1 (effect, 13.34; 95% CI, 2.35–24.33; nominal p?=?0.0178) and in OPUS-2 (effect, 12.61; 95% CI, 8.51–16.70; p?<?0.0001).

Limitations: Trials were conducted over 12 weeks; efficacy beyond this period was not assessed.

Conclusions: Across three trials, lifitegrast improved ICSS in participants with mild-to-moderate baseline symptomatology in two studies, and EDS in participants with moderate-to-severe baseline symptomatology in two studies. Based on the overall findings from these trials, lifitegrast shows promise as a new treatment option for signs and symptoms of DED.  相似文献   
10.
目的观察参芪润肠通便汤治疗小儿便秘的临床疗效。方法选定麻城市人民医院中医儿科门诊治疗的小儿便秘患儿80例,研究时段自2017年2月—2019年1月,按照治疗方式进行分组,分对照组(40例,常规药物治疗)、试验组(40例,参芪润肠通便汤治疗),回顾分析患儿临床资料,比较临床疗效、症状积分。结果试验组临床总有效率(95.00%)显著较对照组(77.50%)高,P<0.05;试验组治疗前1 d大便全程干燥、腹部胀满、胃纳减退评分与对照组相比存在差异,但P<0.05,治疗2周后两组上述评分均降低,且试验组较对照组低,P<0.05。结论针对小儿便秘患儿,参芪润肠通便汤可改善患者症状,促进其病情恢复,患儿整体状态得以改善,值得借鉴。  相似文献   
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