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1.
《Injury》2023,54(6):1702-1710
IntroductionPatients with cirrhosis are at higher risk for morbidity after injury. Acetabular fractures represent a highly morbid injury pattern. Few studies have specifically examined an effect of cirrhosis on risk of complications after acetabular fracture. We hypothesized that cirrhosis is independently associated with increased risk of inpatient complications following operative treatment of acetabular fractures.MethodsAdults patients with acetabular fracture who underwent operative treatment were identified from Trauma Quality Improvement Program data from 2015 to 2019. Patients with and without cirrhosis were matched on a propensity score predicting cirrhotic status and inpatient complications based on patient, injury, and treatment characteristics. The primary outcome was overall complication rate. Secondary outcomes included serious adverse event rate, overall infection rate, and mortality.ResultsAfter propensity score matching, 137 cirrhosis+ and 274 cirrhosis- remained. No significant differences existed in observed characteristics after matching. Compared to cirrhosis- patients, cirrhosis+ patients experienced 43.4% (83.9 vs 40.5%, p < 0.001) greater absolute risk difference of any inpatient complication, 29.9% (51.8 vs 21.9%, p < 0.001) greater absolute risk difference of serious adverse events, 28.5% (41.6 vs 13.1%, p < 0.001) greater absolute risk difference of any infection, and 2.9% (2.9% vs 0.0%, p = 0.02) greater absolute risk difference of inpatient mortality.ConclusionCirrhosis is associated with higher rates of inpatient complications, serious adverse events, infection, and mortality among patients undergoing operative repair of acetabular fracture.Level of EvidencePrognostic Level III.  相似文献   
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BackgroundKnowledge of the epidemiology of burn-related fatalities is limited, with most previous studies based on hospital and burn centre data only.AimsTo describe the epidemiological characteristics of all burn-related fatalities in Australia and New Zealand, and to identify any trends in burn-related fatality incidence over the study period.MethodsData from the National Coronial Information System, including data for pre-hospital and in-hospital burn-related fatality cases, was used to examine the characteristics of burn-related fatalities occurring in Australia and New Zealand from 2009 to 2015. Burn-related fatality rates per 100,000 population were estimated, and incidence trends assessed using Poisson regression analysis.ResultsOf the 310 burn-related fatalities that occurred in Australia and New Zealand, 2009–2015, 41% occurred in a pre-hospital setting. Overall, most burn-related fatality cases were fire related, occurred at home, and were of people aged 41–80 years. One quarter of all burn-related fatalities were a result of intentional self-harm. The population incidence of all burn-related fatalities combined, and for NSW, decreased over the study period.ConclusionsThis study has identified the importance of examining all burn-related fatalities. If this is not done, vulnerable population subgroups will be missed and prevention efforts poorly targeted.  相似文献   
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ObjectiveThe main objective of this study is to define the factors associated with frailty and psychosocial imbalance in elderly people who live in the community.MethodsMulticentre prospective study with a representative sample of subjects older than 75 years who live in the community in the province of Huesca (Spain). 5-year follow-up with biannual assessment. Standardised individual assessment carried out by GPs trained to assess depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment, psychotic symptoms, sarcopenia, social network, dependence for basic and instrumental activities of daily living, physical severity, risk of dependence and quality of life. Further assessment two and five years later to quantify adverse events: institutionalisation, functional impairment or mortality. Possible risk factors will be assessed: gender, age, social status, functional status, mental status and physical severity. Predictive and individual risk models will be designed in order to identify elderly people with high psychosocial frailty and destabilisation risk.ConclusionsAn understanding of the possible risk factors would facilitate the identification of elderly subjects at greater risk of psychosocial frailty, thereby enabling preventive activities to be implemented aimed at reducing frailty and associated adverse events (institutionalisation, mortality, etc.).  相似文献   
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high risk of mortality and complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Achieving good glycemic control is very important in diabetic patients to reduce complications and mortality due to COVID-19. Recent studies have shown the mortality benefit and anti-inflammatory effects of Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) in diabetic patients with COVID-19. DPP-4i may have a beneficial role in halting the severity of infection primarily by three routes, namely viral entry inhibition, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects and glycemic control. This has raised the pro-mising hypothesis that DPP-4i might be an optimal strategy for treating COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. This review aims to summarise the possible therapeutic non-glycemic effects of DPP-4i in diabetic patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the light of available evidence.  相似文献   
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《Pancreatology》2022,22(5):665-670
Background and objectivesHyperlipasemia is highly prevalent among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of lipase activity, measured at the time of admission, on the clinical course and mortality in COVID-19 patients.MethodsThe population of this study comprised 12,139 patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 between June 2020 and June 2021 in a pandemic hospital. Of these, 8819 patients were excluded from the study due to missing data, four patients were excluded due to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (according to the revised Atlanta criteria), and 72 patients were excluded due to alcohol use or having a history of chronic pancreatitis. The final study sample consisted of the remaining 3244 COVID-19 patients. Laboratory results, intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up periods, the need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality rates were compared between the normal lipase activity and high lipase activity groups.ResultsThere were 968 (29.8%) patients with high lipase activity at the time of admission. The rate of ICU admission was 36.1% vs. 9.9% (p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation requirement rates were 33.7% vs. 8.3% (p < 0.001), and mortality rates were as 24.6% vs. 6.4% (p < 0.001) in the high lipase activity group compared to the normal lipase activity group. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that high lipase activity was an independent factor in predicting mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.191, p < 0.001).ConclusionElevated lipase activity without acute pancreatitis at the time of admission in COVID-19 patients was determined as an independent predictor of poor prognosis.  相似文献   
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Background

The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of trauma patients who were injured in a motor vehicle crash and tested positive for alcohol upon hospital arrival versus those who tested negative.

Methods

Study data came from the US National Trauma Data Bank (2007–2010). Any blood alcohol concentration (BAC) found at or above the legal limit (≥0.08?g/dL) was considered “alcohol positive”, and if no alcohol was identified through testing, the patient was considered “alcohol negative”. Patients’ demographics including age >?=?14, race, gender, drug test results, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, injury severity score (ISS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were included in the study. Propensity score and exact pair matching were performed between the groups using baseline characteristics.

Results

From a total of 88,794 patients, 30.9% tested positive and 69.1% tested negative for alcohol. There were significant differences found between the groups regarding age, gender, race, and GCS (all p?<?0.001) as well as a significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% vs. 2.7%, p?<?0.001) and median time to patient expiration (4 vs. 3 days, p?<?0.001) in the alcohol negative group. After running both matching scenarios, there was no evidence of a significant difference seen in the rates of in-hospital mortality or the median time to patient expiration between the alcohol groups in either matched comparison.

Conclusion

Patients who tested positive for alcohol following a traumatic motor vehicle crash showed no significant increase in in-hospital mortality or time to expiration when compared to propensity score and exact matched patients who tested negative for alcohol.  相似文献   
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