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《Clinical neurophysiology》2021,132(10):2357-2364
ObjectivesTo investigate the subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of either muscle or cutaneous afferents.MethodsSEPs were recorded in 6 patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD) who underwent electrode implantation in the pedunculopontine (PPTg) nucleus area. We compared SEPs recorded from the scalp and from the intracranial electrode contacts to electrical stimuli applied to: 1) median nerve at the wrist, 2) abductor pollicis brevis motor point, and 3) distal phalanx of the thumb. Also the high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) were analysed.ResultsAfter median nerve and pure cutaneous (distant phalanx of the thumb) stimulation, a P1-N1 complex was recorded by the intracranial lead, while the scalp electrodes recorded the short-latency far-field responses (P14 and N18). On the contrary, motor point stimulation did not evoke any low-frequency component in the PPTg traces, nor the N18 potential on the scalp. HFOs were recorded to stimulation of all modalities by the PPTg electrode contacts.ConclusionsStimulus processing within the cuneate nucleus depends on modality, since only the cutaneous input activates the complex intranuclear network possibly generating the scalp N18 potential.SignificanceOur results shed light on the subcortical processing of the somatosensory input of different modalities.  相似文献   
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AimThe aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of the Bachelor’s thesis of fourth-year nursing students at a Spanish public university, the criteria that students used to choose a topic and students’ degree of satisfaction after completing the Bachelor’s thesis.DesignQuantitative study.MethodsWe examined 420 Bachelor’s theses carried out from 2013 to 2018 and conducted an online survey among fourth-year students in the 2017–18 and 2018–19 academic years (81 completed questionnaires).ResultsThe Bachelor’s thesis took the form of a research proposal. The most frequent proposal type was a qualitative hospital-based study whose objective was to understand the experiences of adult or adolescent patients, close family members, or nurses. Students chose topics for personal reasons. Most participants reported feeling satisfied with the knowledge and skills acquired.ConclusionsStudents completing a Bachelor’s thesis in the form of a research proposal have the potential to transfer their research skills to their nursing practice.  相似文献   
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease that requires chronic treatment throughout the evolution of the disease, with a complex physiopathology that entails great challenges for the development of new and specific treatments for ulcerative colitis and Crohn´s disease. The anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy has impacted the clinical course of IBD in those patients who do not respond to conventional treatment, so there is a need to develop new therapies and markers of treatment response. Various pathways involved in the development of the disease are known and the new therapies have focused on blocking the inflammatory process at the gastrointestinal level by oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, and topical route. All these new therapies can lead to more personalized treatments with higher success rates and fewer relapses. These treatments have not only focused on clinical remission, but also on achieving macroscopic changes at the endoscopic level and microscopic changes by achieving mucosal healing. These treatments are mainly based on modifying signaling pathways, by blocking receptors or ligands, reducing cell migration and maintaining the integrity of the epithelial barrier. Therefore, this review presents the efficacy and safety of the new treatments that are currently under study and the advances that have been made in this area in recent years.  相似文献   
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深化家庭医生签约服务是深化医药卫生体制改革、强化基层医疗卫生服务、实现"健康中国"战略目标的重要选择,也是当前更好维护人民群众健康的重要途径。为有效推进签约服务工作,国家陆续推出各项政策,全国各地也在积极进行实践探索,成效明显。但是,签约服务仍面临诸多问题,其中"执行难"是签约服务深度推进的一大困境。通过史密斯政策执行过程模型,结合签约服务政策执行过程,发现签约服务仍存在法治性不足、政策执行人员水平不高、激励不足、政策环境影响等诸多制约因素。因此,需要从法律和制度方面进行顶层设计、提升执行人员素质和职业认同、建立医患互信、优化政策执行环境等角度进行政策创新,探索家庭医生签约服务可持续发展的路径。  相似文献   
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Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Progression to cancer typically occurs in a stepwise fashion through worsening dysplasia and ultimately, invasive neoplasia. Established EAC with deep involvement of the esophageal wall and/or metastatic disease is invariably associated with poor long-term survival rates. This guides the rationale of surveillance of Barrett’s in an attempt to treat lesions at an earlier, and potentially curative stage. The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in management of Barrett’s with rapid expansion in the role of endoscopic eradication therapy (EET) for management of dysplastic and early neoplastic BE, and there have been substantial changes to international consensus guidelines for management of early BE based on evolving evidence. This review aims to assist the physician in the therapeutic decision-making process with patients by comprehensive review and summary of literature surrounding natural history of Barrett’s by histological stage, and the effectiveness of interventions in attenuating the risk posed by its natural history. Key findings were as follows. Non-dysplastic Barrett’s is associated with extremely low risk of progression, and interventions cannot be justified. The annual risk of cancer progression in low grade dysplasia is between 1%-3%; EET can be offered though evidence for its benefit remains confined to highly select settings. High-grade dysplasia progresses to cancer in 5%-10% per year; EET is similarly effective to and less morbid than surgery and should be routinely performed for this indication. Risk of nodal metastases in intramucosal cancer is 2%-4%, which is comparable to operative mortality rate, so EET is usually preferred. Submucosal cancer is associated with nodal metastases in 14%-41% hence surgery remains standard of care, except for select situations.  相似文献   
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