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Oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) teaching is set to undergo a paradigm shift towards competency-based training. With increasing focus on resident skill development and patient safety, computerized simulators are likely to play a more mainstream role in OMS training. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, to highlight the scope of computerized simulation in OMS teaching. A PubMed search was performed by two independent reviewers, and 35 articles published in English between 2010 and 2021 that reported the use of computerized simulation for teaching maxillofacial procedures were included in the analysis. Eight articles on minor oral surgery, seven on orthognathic surgery, five on maxillofacial trauma, five on cleft lip and palate surgery, three articles each on nerve block techniques, endoscopic procedures, and reconstructive surgery, and one article on fibre-optic intubation reported the use of computerized simulation that can be applied to OMS training. Ten randomized controlled trials were identified in the search. However there was marked heterogeneity among the studies. Simulator training for skill acquisition mentored by an expert OMS educator could offer holistic resident training; however more studies that test common themes of resident training such as knowledge acquisition and skill development are necessary.  相似文献   
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Traditionally, surgical management of zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) and orbital fractures occurs within two to three weeks of the injury, followed by an overnight admission to allow for extended eye observations. This is due to the risk of postoperative retrobulbar haemorrhage (RBH) or orbital compartment syndrome (OCS), a rapidly progressive and sight threatening emergency that requires immediate intervention. In September 2016 the oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) department at Leeds Teaching Hospitals redesigned their trauma service with a full-time trauma consultant, a dedicated clinic, and a weekly morning elective trauma theatre list. This allowed for standardisation of the management of patients with OMFS injuries. Furthermore, a formal day-case ZMC and orbital fracture pathway was developed to allow patients to undergo surgical management of such fractures with a same-day discharge. This has since been identified as an area of excellence by the Getting It Right First Time (GIRFT) programme, and is in line with the addition of ZMC and orbital fractures to the procedural list written by the British Association of Day Case Surgery (BADS). Unbeknown to the unit, the volume of day-case procedures was the highest within the UK, demonstrating the importance of GIRFT in highlighting areas of good or unique practice. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of our day-case pathway and designated OMFS trauma service on compliance with recent recommendations by GIRFT and BADS. Secondly, it was to determine the safety of same-day discharge with regards to postoperative complications.  相似文献   
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BackgroundCentrally located pancreatic lesions are often treated with extended pancreaticoduodenectomy or distal pancreatectomy resulting in loss of healthy parenchyma and a high risk of diabetes and exocrine insufficiency. Robotic central pancreatectomy (RCP) is a parenchyma sparring alternative that has been shown safe and feasible [[1], [2]].MethodsIn this article, we describe our operative technique and the perioperative outcomes of a series of RCP for low-grade or benign pancreatic tumors.ResultsSix patients (5 female and 1 man) with a median age of 51.5 (44–68) years underwent a RCP for 2 serous cystadenomas, 2 mucinous cystic tumors, 1 neuroendocrine tumor, and 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. There were no conversions, intraoperative complications, or perioperative transfusions. Median operative time and was 240 (230–291) minutes and median blood loss was 100 (100–400) ml. The median hospital stay was 8 (5–27) days. There were no mortalities, reoperations, or readmissions. One patient developed a grade B pancreatic fistula which was successfully managed conservatively. All resections had free margins and the median tumor size was 2.5 (1.5–3.5) cm. After a mean follow-up of 46 months, no patients presented new-onset diabetes or exocrine insufficiency.ConclusionsRCP represents the least invasive option for both the patient and the pancreatic parenchyma. With a standardized technique, RCP results in low postoperative morbidity and excellent long-term pancreatic function. Although our results are excellent, POPF still represents the main complication of central pancreatectomy with an incidence ranging from 0 to 80% depending on multiple factors such as the surgeon, technique, and pancreatic texture.  相似文献   
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IntroductionTextbook outcome (TO) is a composite outcome measure covering the surgical care process in a single outcome measure. TO has an advantage over single outcome parameters with low event rates, which have less discriminating impact to detect differences between hospitals. This study aimed to assess factors associated with TO, and evaluate hospital and network variation after case-mix correction in TO rates for liver surgery.MethodsThis was a population-based retrospective study of all patients who underwent liver resection for malignancy in the Netherlands in 2019 and 2020. TO was defined as absence of severe postoperative complications, mortality, prolonged length of hospital stay, and readmission, and obtaining adequate resection margins. Multivariable logistic regression was used for case-mix adjustment.Results2376 patients were included. TO was accomplished in 1380 (80%) patients with colorectal liver metastases, in 192 (76%) patients with other liver metastases, in 183 (74%) patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 86 (51%) patients with biliary cancers. Factors associated with lower TO rates for CRLM included ASA score ≥3 (aOR 0.70, CI 0.51–0.95 p = 0.02), extrahepatic disease (aOR 0.64, CI 0.44–0.95, p = 0.02), tumour size >55 mm on preoperative imaging (aOR 0.56, CI 0.34–0.94, p = 0.02), Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2 (aOR 0.73, CI 0.54–0.98, p = 0.04), and major liver resection (aOR 0.50, CI 0.36–0.69, p < 0.001). After case-mix correction, no significant hospital or oncological network variation was observed.ConclusionTO differs between indications for liver resection and can be used to assess between hospital and network differences.  相似文献   
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In patients treated by orbital wall decompression for endocrine orbitopathy (EO) there is limited evidence on the effect of orbital wall resections. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of one, two, and three-wall resections on orbital parameters to determine if any such correlations exist. Preoperative and postoperative data from all patients at a tertiary care centre who underwent decompression surgery from 2010 - 2020 were digitally analysed. The effect of the number and area of resected walls on orbital area, orbital volume, and Hertel value, and the effect of lateral rim advancement (LARA) were determined. A total of 131 orbital areas showed an increase from a mean (SD) preoperative area of 42.0 (4.6) cm2 to 47.3 (6.1) cm2 postoperatively (p<0.001). In total, the mean (SD) area of osseous wall removed in all patients was 6.2 (1.7) cm2 at the lateral orbit (n = 129), 6.7 (2.3) cm2 at the orbital floor (n = 123), and 5.8 (1.8) cm2 at the medial orbital wall (n =30). The mean (SD) orbital volume increased by 6.0 (3.0) cm3 after decompression. There was also a significant reduction in exophthalmos of 7.3 (3.2) mm (from 25.2 (3.9) to 17.9 (3.5), p<0.001). LARA was performed in 50 patients. Changes in volume and area, and reduction in exophthalmos were not significantly different with or without LARA. The postoperative effects of orbital wall resection are predictable and exhibit a relation with six units of change. Two-wall resection is the most common intervention.  相似文献   
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Management of colorectal cancer (CRC) was severely affected by the changes implemented during the pandemic, and this resulted in delayed elective presentation, increased emergency presentation, reduced screening and delayed definitive therapy. This review was conducted to analyze the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on management of CRC and to identify the changes made in order to adapt to the pandemic. We performed a literature search in PubMed, Medline, Index Medicus, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Reference Citation Analysis (https://www.referencecitationanalysis.com/) and Google Scholar using the following keywords in various combinations: Colorectal cancer, elective surgery, emergency surgery, stage upgrading, screening, surveillance and the COVID-19 pandemic. Only studies published in English were included. To curtail the spread of COVID-19 infection, there were modifications made in the management of CRC. Screening was limited to high risk individuals, and the screening tests of choice during the pandemic were fecal occult blood test, fecal immunochemical test and stool DNA testing. The use of capsule colonoscopy and open access colonoscopy was also encouraged. Blood-based tests like serum methylated septin 9 were also encouraged for screening of CRC during the pandemic. The presentation of CRC was also affected by the pandemic with more patients presenting with emergencies like obstruction and perforation. Stage migration was also observed during the pandemic with more patients presenting with more advanced tumors. The operative therapy of CRC was altered by the pandemic as more emergencies surgeries were done, which may require exteriorization by stoma. This was to reduce the morbidity associated with anastomosis and encourage early discharge from the hospital. There was also an initial reduction in laparoscopic surgical procedures due to the fear of aerosols and COVID-19 infection. As we gradually come out of the pandemic, we should remember the lessons learned and continue to apply them even after the pandemic passes.  相似文献   
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目的探讨右美托咪定联合舒芬太尼自控静脉镇痛(PCIA)对妇科腹腔镜手术患者术后镇痛效果、炎症细胞因子及早期恢复的影响。方法选择2019年9月—2020年9月在该院接受妇科腹腔镜手术的100例患者作为研究对象。采用随机数表法均分两组,各50例。对照组给予舒芬太尼镇痛,观察组给予右美托咪定联合舒芬太尼镇痛。比较两组术后恢复情况,分析两组术后镇痛,记录麻醉诱导前(T0)、术毕(T1)、术后6 h(T2)及术后24 h(T3)时白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、白细胞介素-10(IL-10)及肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)变化,统计两组术后不良反应发生情况。结果观察组呼唤睁眼时间、定向力恢复时间及首次肛门排气时间均短于对照组(均P<0.05),两组术后住院时间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组患者T1、T2及T3时的拉姆齐镇静评分(RSS)和数字疼痛分级法(NRS)评分逐渐下降,观察组T1和T2时的RSS评分明显高于对照组,而NRS评分低于对照组(P<0.05);两组患者T1、T2及T3时的IL-6、IL-10及TNF-α表达水平均高于T0时,且观察组患者T1、T2及T3时的IL-6、TNF-α表达水平均低于对照组,IL-10表达水平高于对照组(P<0.05);观察组术后不良反应发生率(6.00%)低于对照组的22.00%(P<0.05)。结论右美托咪定联合舒芬太尼PCIA可提高妇科腹腔镜手术患者术后镇痛效果,抑制炎性反应,促进术后早日恢复,减少不良反应发生,临床运用价值较高。  相似文献   
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目的探讨"一站式"杂交手术救治凶险性前置胎盘患者的应用价值及重要性。 方法对多学科合作行杂交手术救治凶险性前置胎盘合并胎盘植入患者的病例进行回顾性分析,总结"一站式"杂交手术多学科医护合作和护理配合要点。 结果经过多学科默契配合下的"一站式"杂交手术以及"L"型护理配合模式,手术顺利完成,术后无并发症发生,产妇于术后第4天出院。 结论凶险性前置胎盘患者病情危重、手术难度大,通过多学科讨论会、辐射防护、安全转运、医护默契配合以及根据潜在并发症采取预见性的护理措施是"一站式"杂交手术成功的要点。  相似文献   
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