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1.
《Vaccine》2022,40(52):7604-7612
Background and ObjectiveVaccine uptake during pregnancy remains low. Our objectives were to describe 1) development and adaptation of a clinician communication training intervention for maternal immunizations and 2) obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) clinician and staff perspectives on the intervention and fit for the prenatal care context.MethodsDesign of the Motivational Interviewing for Maternal Immunizations (MI4MI) intervention was based on similar communication training interventions for pediatric settings and included presumptive initiation of vaccine recommendations (“You’re due for two vaccines today”) combined with motivational interviewing (MI) for hesitant patients. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with ob-gyn clinicians and staff in five Colorado clinics including settings with obstetric physicians, certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and clinician-trainees. Participants were asked about adapting training to the ob-gyn setting and their implementation experiences. Feedback was incorporated through iterative changes to training components.ResultsInterview and focus group discussion results from participants before (n = 3), during (n = 11) and after (n = 25) implementation guided intervention development and adaptation. Three virtual, asynchronous training components were created: a video and two interactive modules. This virtual format was favored due to challenges attending group meetings; however, participants noted opportunities to practice skills through role-play were lacking. Training modules were adapted to include common challenging vaccine conversations and live-action videos. Participants liked interactive training components and use of adult learning strategies. Some participants initially resisted the presumptive approach but later found it useful after applying it in their practices. Overall, participants reported that MI4MI training fit well with the prenatal context and recommended more inclusion of non-clinician staff.ConclusionsMI4MI training was viewed as relevant and useful for ob-gyn clinicians and staff. Suggestions included making training more interactive, and including more complex scenarios and non-clinician staff.  相似文献   
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BackgroundRecent guidelines for the treatment of moderate or severe ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have changed. This study assessed the real-world impact of changing guidelines on the management of IMR during CABG over time. We hypothesized that the utilization of mitral valve repair for IMR would decrease over time, whereas mitral valve replacement for severe IMR would increase.MethodsPatients undergoing CABG in a statewide collaborative database (2011-2020) were stratified by severity of IMR. Trends in mitral valve repair or replacement were evaluated. To account for differences of the patients, propensity score–matched analyses were used to compare patients with and without mitral intervention.ResultsA total of 11,676 patients met inclusion criteria, including 1355 (11.6%) with moderate IMR and 390 (3.3%) with severe IMR. The proportion of patients undergoing mitral intervention for moderate IMR decreased over time (2011, 17.7%; 2020, 7.5%; Ptrend = .001), whereas mitral replacement for severe IMR remained stable (2011, 11.1%; 2020, 13.3%; Ptrend = .14). Major morbidity was higher for patients with moderate IMR who underwent mitral intervention (29.1% vs 19.9%; P = .005). In a propensity analysis of 249 well-matched pairs, there was no difference in major morbidity (29.3% with mitral intervention vs 23.7% without; P = .16) or operative mortality (1.2% vs 2.4%; P = .5).ConclusionsConsistent with recent guideline updates, patients with moderate IMR were less likely to undergo mitral repair. However, the rate of replacement for severe IMR did not change. Mitral intervention during CABG did not increase operative mortality or morbidity.  相似文献   
4.
Background & aimsTo determine the trends of self-reported non-adherence rates among adults taking Type 2 medicines (T2D) medicines between 2017 and 2019 and to identify the patterns for the frequently reported reasons for non-adherence in the United States.Methods & resultsData from the National Health and Wellness Survey, a self-administered, internet-based cross-sectional survey of US adults from 2017 to 2019 was used. Non-adherence was measured using the self-reported Medication Adherence Reasons Scale (MAR-Scale). Frequencies were used to identify the reasons for non-adherence for insulin and non-insulin therapies for T2D.Data were obtained from 2983 respondents in 2017, 5416 in 2018, and 5268 in 2019. Based on the MAR-Scale, the self-reported medication non-adherence rate was 25% in 2017, 21% in 2018, and 27% in 2019. The most common reason for non-adherence across all the three years was simple forgetfulness, yet patients reported the lowest mean number of days missing medication for that reason. Though less frequently reported, non-adherence lasted longer when patient did not know how to take their medicines, cost was a reason, or had concerns about the long term effects of the medicines.ConclusionsWith no significant improvement in adherence with T2D medicines over time, regardless of better awareness and extensive diabetes education, focus should be on individualized non-adherence reasons-based interventions.  相似文献   
5.
目的 探讨丹青胶囊联合他扎罗汀倍他米松治疗银屑病的临床疗效.方法 选取2019年6月—2021年6月在天津市职业病防治院门诊皮肤科就诊治疗的114例银屑病患者,根据随机数字法分为对照组和治疗组,每组各57例.对照组患者给予他扎罗汀倍他米松乳膏,洗净患处,待皮肤干爽后,将适量本品均匀涂抹于患处,1次/d.治疗组患者在对照组治疗基础上口服丹青胶囊,4粒/次,3次/d.两组患者均连续治疗7 d.观察两组患者的临床疗效和临床症状好转时间,比较两组治疗前与治疗1、4、8周的皮损面积和严重程度指数(PASI)评分和血清炎性因子水平.结果 治疗后,治疗组总有效率是98.25%,显著高于对照组的82.46%(P<0.05).治疗后,治疗组患者皮损暗红、皮损肥厚、皮肤瘙痒、皮肤疼痛等症状好转时间均显著短于对照组(P<0.05).治疗后,两组PASI评分均较治疗前显著降低(P<0.05);治疗1、4、8周治疗组PASI评分显著低于对照组(P<0.05).治疗后,两组患者血清炎性因子白细胞介素6(IL-6)、白细胞介素17(IL-17)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、干扰素-γ(IFN-γ)水平均较治疗前显著降低(P<0.05);治疗后,治疗组血清炎性因子水平显著低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 丹青胶囊联合他扎罗汀倍他米松治疗银屑病效果明显,能显著降低炎性因子水平,并有助于改善皮损情况,值得临床推广应用.  相似文献   
6.
PurposeAccording to the social determinants of health framework, income inequality is a potential risk factor for adverse mental health. However, few studies have explored the mechanisms suspected to mediate this relationship. The current study addresses this gap through a mediation analysis to determine if social support and community engagement act as mediators linking neighbourhood income inequality to maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms within a cohort of new mothers living in the City of Calgary, Canada.MethodsData collected at three years postpartum from mothers belonging to the All Our Families (AOF) cohort were used in the current study. Maternal data were collected between 2012 and 2015 and linked to neighbourhood socioeconomic data from the 2006 Canadian Census. Income inequality was measured using Gini coefficients derived from 2006 after-tax census data. Generalized structural equation models were used to quantify the associations between income inequality and mental health symptoms, and to assess the potential direct and indirect mediating effects of maternal social support and community engagement.ResultsIncome inequality was not significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms (β = 0.32, 95%CI = −0.067, 0.70), anxiety symptoms (β = 0.11, 95%CI = −0.39, 0.60), or lower social support. Income inequality was not associated with community engagement. For the depression models, higher social support was significantly associated with lower depressive symptoms (β = −0.13, 95%CI = −0.15, −0.097), while community engagement was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.059, 95%CI = −0.15, 0.27). Similarly, for the anxiety models, lower anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with higher levels of social support (β = −0.17, 95%CI = −0.20, −0.13) but not with higher levels of community engagement (β = 0.14, 95%CI = −0.14, 0.41).ConclusionThe current study did not find clear evidence for social support or community engagement mediating the relationship between neighbourhood income inequality and maternal mental health. Future investigations should employ a broader longitudinal approach to capture changes in income inequality, potential mediators, and mental health symptomatology over time.  相似文献   
7.
PurposeTo assess the safety and tolerability of a vandetanib-eluting radiopaque embolic (BTG-002814) for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with resectable liver malignancies.Materials and MethodsThe VEROnA clinical trial was a first-in-human, phase 0, single-arm, window-of-opportunity study. Eligible patients were aged ≥18 years and had resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (Child-Pugh A) or metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients received 1 mL of BTG-002814 transarterially (containing 100 mg of vandetanib) 7–21 days prior to surgery. The primary objectives were to establish the safety and tolerability of BTG-002814 and determine the concentrations of vandetanib and the N-desmethyl vandetanib metabolite in the plasma and resected liver after treatment. Biomarker studies included circulating proangiogenic factors, perfusion computed tomography, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.ResultsEight patients were enrolled: 2 with HCC and 6 with mCRC. There was 1 grade 3 adverse event (AE) before surgery and 18 after surgery; 6 AEs were deemed to be related to BTG-002814. Surgical resection was not delayed. Vandetanib was present in the plasma of all patients 12 days after treatment, with a mean maximum concentration of 24.3 ng/mL (standard deviation ± 13.94 ng/mL), and in resected liver tissue up to 32 days after treatment (441–404,000 ng/g). The median percentage of tumor necrosis was 92.5% (range, 5%–100%). There were no significant changes in perfusion imaging parameters after TACE.ConclusionsBTG-002814 has an acceptable safety profile in patients before surgery. The presence of vandetanib in the tumor specimens up to 32 days after treatment suggests sustained anticancer activity, while the low vandetanib levels in the plasma suggest minimal release into the systemic circulation. Further evaluation of this TACE combination is warranted in dose-finding and efficacy studies.  相似文献   
8.
BackgroundRecent studies have described the use of telehealth for pediatric surgical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate equity in telehealth use by comparing rates of utilization and satisfaction with pediatric surgical telemedicine among Hispanic patients.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients seen by a surgical subspecialty provider in the outpatient setting at a quaternary pediatric hospital between April 1 and June 30, 2020. Patients evaluated in the same three-month period in 2019 were analyzed as a historic control. Differences in Family Experience Survey (FES) responses based on race and ethnicity and preferred language of care were assessed using univariable and multivariable generalized linear modeling.ResultsThe pandemic cohort included fewer patients of Hispanic ethnicity and fewer Spanish-speakers. After controlling for visit type, comparison of Spanish-speaking and English-speaking patients revealed that Spanish-speaking families had significantly lower scores for FES items that evaluated healthcare provider explaining (IRR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61–0.90), listening (IRR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63–0.92), and time spent with the family (IRR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60–0.89). There were no differences in FES responses based on insurance status or degree of medical complexity.ConclusionsTelehealth services were less commonly used among Hispanic and Spanish-speaking patients. Language may differentially affect family satisfaction with healthcare and telehealth solutions. Strategies to mitigate these inequities are needed and may include strengthening interpreter services and providing language-concordant care.Level of evidenceLevel IV.  相似文献   
9.

Objective

To collaboratively implement the age-friendly health systems framework, known as the 4Ms: What Matters, Medication, Mentation, and Mobility, at The Primary Health Network (PHN), a federally qualified health center.

Data Sources

Data were collected from PHN electronic medical records (EMRs) for individuals over age 65 from December 30, 2019 to December 24, 2021 and from Project ECHO© attendance and evaluation surveys.

Study Design

The telementoring educational program, Project ECHO©, was used to engage PHN health care professionals working in rural areas of Pennsylvania to incorporate the 4Ms into their practice starting with the annual wellness visit (AWV). Project ECHO© was launched at three primary care sites. After 18 months, it was then disseminated to an additional 18 sites creating pilot and comparison groups. Outcomes included codesigned patient process metrics using EMR data and project ECHO© participant data.

Data Collection Methods

EMR data were generated by system reports created by PHN's quality assurance program manager. Project ECHO© data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools. Outcomes were aggregated, analyzed for trends over time, and compared between groups.

Principal Findings

All nine process outcomes increased from baseline to follow-up at the three initial sites, ranging from 4% to 43% g. At year two, the three initial sites had higher rates on AWVs (pilot 24%, comparison 12%; p < 0.0001), Advance Care Planning (New on file, pilot 8%, comparison 2%; Discussed with patient, pilot 18%, comparison 13%; Patient declined, pilot 0%, comparison 0%; p = 0.0001), Dementia Screening (pilot 24%, comparison 12%; p < 0.0001), Fall Risk Management (pilot 43%, comparison 10%; p < 0.0001), and Mobility Goal (pilot 19%, comparison 9%; p < 0.0001); and lower rates on High-Risk Medication Elimination (pilot 54%, comparison, 63%, p < 0.02).

Conclusions

Access to high-quality geriatric care for rural older adults can be improved by increasing health care professionals' knowledge of the 4Ms, beginning with its incorporation into the AWV.  相似文献   
10.
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