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吴鞠通著《温病条辨》倡三焦辨证,形成了以卫气营血、三焦为核心的温病辨证体系,其中卷六《解儿难》结合温病理论阐释了其对儿科疾病和治疗用药的独特见解。吴鞠通解小儿“纯阳”为“稚阳未充,稚阴未长”,其易于感邪、易于传变,治疗用药需谨慎。本文结合吴鞠通对小儿生理病理特点的认识,从谨慎选药、慎用苦寒、多甘少酸、巧用辛温、善用辛凉、重视脾胃、辅以食疗七个方面阐释吴鞠通儿科方面的用药特点,以期为儿科临床用药提供参考。  相似文献   
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An m.10158T>C mutation in MT-ND3, encoding a subunit of respiratory complex I, causes early-onset Leigh syndrome (LS), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acid and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, and LS and MELAS overlapping syndrome, presumably dependent on the ratio of heteroplasmy. Herein, we report a 4-year-old girl with heteroplasmic m.10158T>C mutation, showing an evolving age-dependent phenotype from LS to MELAS syndromes. She showed mild developmental delay during infancy, which was associated with magnetic resonance imaging lesions in the brain stem and basal ganglia. At the age of 4 years, she developed rapid neurological deterioration and intractable seizures, which was associated with recurrent multiple cerebral lesions as well as basal ganglia lesions. Her cerebral lesions were located predominantly in white matter and appeared at multiple areas simultaneously, unique characteristics that are distinct from typical MELAS. Two patients with LS-MELAS overlapping syndrome with m.10158T>C have been previously reported, however, this is the first patient with m.10158T>C showing significant age-dependent changes in clinical features and neuro-images, implying an age-dependent role of complex I in the developing brain.  相似文献   
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BACKGROUNDDiabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. School plays an essential role in the management of student diabetes, which reduces the risk of short- and long-term diabetes complications and ensures that students are well-positioned for optimal academic performance and growth.AIMThe aim of this review was to systematically identify and synthesize the literature concerning theory-based diabetes care interventions in K-12 schools in the United States. It critically assessed the specific role of theories and associated essential constructs in intervention design, implementation, outcome measurement, and evaluation.METHODSRelevant literature was identified by keyword searches of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science.RESULTSFour interventions met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Of those, two evaluated online diabetes education programs for school personnel and the other two assessed in-person interventions. Three studies adopted a one-group pre-post study design, and the remaining one adopted a one-shot case-study design. Three of the interventions adopted social cognitive theory, and the remaining one was guided by the diffusion of innovations theory. Three studies identified core constructs of a theory as predictors of behavioral change. Two used theory to select or develop intervention techniques. Two studies used theory to customize participant intervention techniques. Two studies discussed their findings in the context of theory. No study used theory to select potential intervention participants.CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, despite the value of theory in intervention design and evaluation, theory-based diabetes interventions at school remain scarce. Future research may seek ways to better integrate theory and empirical research.  相似文献   
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In partial monosomy of the distal part of chromosome 16q, abnormal facial features, intellectual disability (ID), and feeding dysfunction are often reported. However, seizures are not typical and the majority of them were seizure-free. Here we present the case of a 16q22.2-q23.1 interstitial deletion identified in a male patient with severe ID, facial anomalies including forehead protrusions and flat nose bridge, patent ductus arteriosus, bilateral vocal cord atresia treated by tracheotomy, and West syndrome, which were developed 10 months after birth. Although phenobarbital, sodium valproate (VPA), and zonisamide were not effective as monotherapies or combination therapies, the patient's epileptic seizures and electroencephalogram anomalies disappeared following combined therapy with lamotrigine and VPA. Although WW Domain Containing Oxidoreductase (WWOX), which is known as a cause of autosomal recessive epileptic encephalopathy, was included within the 6.8-Mb deleted region which identified by targeted panel sequencing and validated by chromosomal microarray analysis, no pathogenic variants were detected in the other allele of WWOX. Therefore, it is possible that other genes within or outside of the long deleted region or their interactions may cause West syndrome in this patient.  相似文献   
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BackgroundAdult imaging for blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) is based on the Denver and Memphis screening criteria where CT angiogram (CTA) is performed for any one of the criteria being positive. These guidelines have been extrapolated to the pediatric population. We hypothesize that the current adult criteria applied to pediatrics lead to unnecessary CTA in pediatric trauma patients.Study designAt our center, a 9-year retrospective study revealed that strict adherence to the Denver and Memphis criteria would have resulted in 332 unnecessary CTAs out of 2795 trauma patients with only 0.3% positive for BCVI. We also conducted a retrospective chart review of 776,355 pediatric trauma patients in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) from 2007 to 2014. Data collection included children between ages 0 and 18, ICD-9 search for blunt cerebrovascular injury, and ICD-9 codes that applied to both Denver and Memphis criteria.ResultsOf 776,355 pediatric trauma activations, 81,294 pediatric patients in the NTDB fit the Denver/Memphis criteria for screening CTA neck or angiography based on ICD-9 codes, while only 2136 patients suffered BCVI. Strict utilization of the Denver/Memphis criteria would have led to a negative CTA in 79,158 (97.4%) patients. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that patients with skull base fracture, cervical spine fractures, cervical spine fracture with cervical cord injury, traumatic jugular venous injury, and cranial nerve injury should be considered part of the screening criteria for BCVI.ConclusionOur study suggests the Denver and Memphis criteria are inadequate screening criteria for CTA looking for BCVI in the pediatric blunt trauma population. New criteria are needed to adequately indicate the need for CT angiography in the pediatric trauma population.Level of evidenceIV.  相似文献   
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