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IntroductionHip displacement is common in cerebral palsy (CP) and is related to the severity of neurological and functional impairment. It is a silent, but progressive disease, and can result in significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, if left untreated. The pathophysiology of hip displacement in CP is a combination of hip flexor-adductor muscle spasticity, abductor muscle weakness, and delayed weight-bearing, resulting in proximal femoral deformities and progressive acetabular dysplasia. Due to a lack of symptoms in the early stages of hip displacement, the diagnosis is easily missed. Awareness of this condition and regular surveillance by clinical examination and serial radiographs of the hips are the key to early diagnosis and treatment.Hip surveillance programmesSeveral population-based studies from around the world have demonstrated that universal hip surveillance in children with CP allows early detection of hip displacement and appropriate early intervention, with a resultant decrease in painful dislocations. Global hip surveillance models are based upon the patients’ age, functional level determined by the Gross Motor Function Classification system (GMFCS), gait classification, standardized clinical exam, and radiographic indices such as the migration percentage (MP), as critical indicators of progressive hip displacement.ConclusionDespite 25 years of evidence showing the efficacy of established hip surveillance programmes, there is poor awareness among healthcare professionals in India about the importance of regular hip surveillance in children with CP. There is a need for professional organizations to develop evidence-based guidelines for hip surveillance which are relevant to the Indian context.  相似文献   
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Introduction: Percutaneous renal mass biopsy has evolved over the last decade with improvements on previous pitfalls including low tissue yield, high non-diagnostic rates, and complications. As understanding of tumor biology and natural history of renal cortical neoplasms has improved, percutaneous renal mass biopsy is poised to have an expanding role in an area characterized by individualized management and refined risk stratification.

Areas covered: This review summarizes the evolution of renal mass biopsy to its current state with respect to outcomes, indications, and clinical guidelines.

Expert opinion: With improved understanding of differential biological potential of renal cortical neoplasms combined with technical improvements in diagnostic yield and accuracy, utilization of renal mass biopsy is becoming an important adjunct to patient care in a broad range of clinical scenarios, including active surveillance, thermal ablation, and use of primary systemic therapy in localized and advanced settings.  相似文献   

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Among the chief limitations in achieving early detection and control of animal‐origin influenza of pandemic potential in high‐risk livestock populations is the existing lag time between sample collection and diagnostic result. Advances in molecular diagnostics are permitting deployment of affordable, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific point‐of‐capture assays, providing opportunities for targeted surveillance driving containment strategies with potentially compelling returns on investment. Interrupting disease transmission at source holds promise of disrupting cycles of animal‐origin influenza incursion to endemicity and limiting impact on animal production, food security, and public health. Adoption of new point‐of‐capture diagnostics should be undertaken in the context of promoting robust veterinary services systems and parallel support for operationalizing pre‐authorized plans and communication strategies that will ensure that the full potential of these new platforms is realized.  相似文献   
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目的 了解铜陵市人民医院2017年临床分离细菌对抗菌药物的耐药状况。方法 对2017年1-12月临床分离菌采用纸片扩散法(KB)进行药敏试验,按CLSI 2017年版标准判读药敏试验结果,采用WHONET 5.6软件进行数据分析。结果 临床分离细菌共3436株,其中革兰阳性菌719株,占20.9%;革兰阴性菌2717株,占79.1%。耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)和耐甲氧西林凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(MRCNS)的检出率分别为23.8%和72.3%,耐甲氧西林株对β-内酰胺类抗生素和其他测试抗菌药物的耐药率显著高于甲氧西林敏感株,未发现对万古霉素和替考拉宁耐药的葡萄球菌。粪肠球菌对青霉素、氨苄西林和呋喃妥因的耐药率较低,屎肠球菌对氯霉素的耐药率较低,5.3%屎肠球菌对万古霉素耐药。大肠埃希菌、克雷伯菌属(肺炎克雷伯菌和产酸克雷伯菌)和奇异变形菌中ESBLs的检出率分别为41.4%、50.7%和19.4%。肠杆菌科细菌中克雷伯菌属和沙雷菌属对碳青霉烯类抗生素耐药率较高,分别为37.5%和36.0%,其他菌属的耐药率低于3%。鲍曼不动杆菌对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率分别80.3%和79.1%;铜绿假单胞菌对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率分别为29.7%和28.4%。肺炎克雷伯菌、鲍曼不动杆菌和铜绿假单胞菌中广泛耐药株的检出率分别为31.3%(171/546)、0.6%(3/508)和0.7%(3/416)。结论 本院革兰阴性菌呈增多趋势,尤其广泛耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌应引起高度关注,做好细菌耐药性监测,加强临床抗菌药物的合理使用和医院感染控制。  相似文献   
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目的 了解防城港市活禽市场环境禽流感病毒监测情况,为科学评判疫情并采取适当的防控措施提供理论依据。方法 2017年3—4月在全市活禽市场外环境采集笼具擦物、冼禽污水、禽粪、砧板擦物、禽类饮用水等标本,用荧光定量PCR法检测禽流感病毒FluA、H5、H9、H7核酸,并进行统计学分析。结果 采集全市36个活禽市场外环境标本1 855份,阳性393份,阳性率为21.19%,其中H5阳性28份,H7阳性2份,H9阳性198份,H5和H9混合阳性37份,其他亚型(FluA阳性,H5、H7、H9 阴性)128份;不同地区标本阳性率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);城区和乡镇市场采集的标本的阳性率差异无统计学意义。5种类型的标本中,洗禽污水的阳性率最高,其次是砧板擦物, 再次是禽类饮用水和笼具擦物,禽粪的阳性率最低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 防城港市活禽市场环境普遍存在高致病性禽流感病毒的污染,H9亚型是主要的病原体,采取了综合防控措施后,防城港市没有发生人间禽流感疫情。  相似文献   
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Using data on waterfowl band recoveries, we identified spatially explicit hotspots of concentrated waterfowl movement to predict occurrence and spatial spread of a novel influenza A virus (clade 2.3.4.4) introduced from Asia by waterfowl from an initial outbreak in North America in November 2014. In response to the outbreak, the hotspots of waterfowl movement were used to help guide sampling for clade 2.3.4.4 viruses in waterfowl as an early warning for the US poultry industry during the outbreak . After surveillance sampling of waterfowl, we tested whether there was greater detection of clade 2.3.4.4 viruses inside hotspots. We found that hotspots defined using kernel density estimates of waterfowl band recoveries worked well in predicting areas with higher prevalence of the viruses in waterfowl. This approach exemplifies the value of ecological knowledge in predicting risk to agricultural security.  相似文献   
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