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IntroductionThe sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) combination is a direct-acting antiviral therapy that is authorized and available in Mexico, making the performance of a real-world multicenter study that evaluates the sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment a relevant undertaking.MethodsA retrospective review of the case records of 241 patients seen at 20 hospitals in Mexico was conducted to assess hepatitis C treatment with the SOF/VEL combination (n = 231) and the sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/ribavirin (SOF/VEL/RBV) combination (n = 10). The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients that achieved SVR at 12 weeks after the end of treatment.ResultsOverall SVR was 98.8% (95% CI 97.35-100%). Only three patients did not achieve SVR, two of whom had cirrhosis and a history of previous treatment with peg-IFN. Of the subgroups analyzed, all the patients with HIV coinfection, three patients with genotype 3, and the patients treated with the SOF/VEL/RBV combination achieved SVR. The subgroups with the lower success rates were patients that were treatment-experienced (96.8%) and patients with F1 fibrosis (95.5%). The most frequent adverse events were fatigue, headache, and insomnia. No serious adverse events were reported.ConclusionTreatments with SOF/VEL and SOF/VEL/RBV were highly safe and effective, results coinciding with those of other international real-world studies.  相似文献   
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are two possible mechanisms related to nephrotoxicity caused by environmental pollutants. Ellagic acid, a powerful antioxidant phytochemical, may have great relevance in mitigating pollutant-induced nephrotoxicity and preventing the progression of kidney disease. This review discusses the latest findings on the protective effects of ellagic acid, its metabolic derivatives, the urolithins, against kidney toxicity caused by heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, and organic air pollutants. We describe the chelating, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, antiautophagic, and antiapoptotic properties of ellagic acid to attenuate nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, we present the molecular targets and signaling pathways that are regulated by these antioxidants, and suggest some others that should be explored. Nevertheless, the number of reports is still limited to establish the efficacy of ellagic acid against kidney damage induced by environmental pollutants. Therefore, additional preclinical studies on this topic are required, as well as the development of well-designed clinical trials.  相似文献   
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Direct peroral cholangioscopy (POC) using an ultra‐slim upper endoscope is one modality of POC for intraductal endoscopic evaluation and treatment of the bile duct. Choledochoduodenostomy (CDS) is one modality of biliary bypass surgery that provides a new route to the bile duct. We carried out direct POC using an ultra‐slim upper endoscope without the use of accessories in 10 patients (four sump syndromes, three bile duct strictures and three intrahepatic duct stones) previously undergoing surgical CDS. Direct POC was successful in all patients. The use of an intraductal balloon catheter was required in one patient for advancement of the endoscope into the bile duct. Distal bile ducts with sump syndromes were cleared using baskets and water irrigation under direct POC. Cholangiocarcinoma was diagnosed in one patient with hilar bile duct stricture after cholangioscopic evaluation and a targeting forceps biopsy under direct POC. Intrahepatic duct stones were successfully extracted after intraductal fragmentation under direct POC. Oozing bleeding occurred during intraductal lithotripsy but stopped spontaneously. Direct POC using an ultra‐slim upper endoscope without the assistance of accessories can easily be carried out in patients undergoing CDS.  相似文献   
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COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus disease with a higher incidence of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion. The high pulmonary tropism and contagiousness of the virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have stimulated new approaches to combat its widespread diffusion. In developing new pharmacological strategies, the chemical characteristic of volatility can add therapeutic value to the hypothetical drug candidate. Volatile molecules are characterized by a high vapor pressure and are consequently easily exhaled by the lungs after ingestion. This feature could be exploited from a pharmacological point of view, reaching the site of action in an uncommon way but allowing for drug delivery. In this way, a hypothetical molecule for COVID-19 should have a balance between its lung exhalation characteristics and both antiviral and anti-inflammatory pharmacological action. Here, the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of a therapy based on oral administration of possible volatile drugs for COVID-19 will be discussed. Both aerosolized antiviral therapy and oral intake of volatile molecules are briefly reviewed, and an evaluation of 1,8-cineole is provided in view of a possible clinical use and also for asymptomatic COVID-19.  相似文献   
8.
《Brain stimulation》2020,13(2):507-516
BackgroundTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique able to transiently modulate brain activity, is surging as one of the most promising therapeutic solutions in many neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, profound limitations exist in current placebo (sham) protocols that limit single- and double-blinding, especially in non-naïve subjects.ObjectiveTo ensure better blinding and strengthen reliability of tDCS studies and trials, we tested a new optimization algorithm aimed at creating an “active” sham tDCS condition (ActiSham hereafter) capable of inducing the same scalp sensations perceived during real stimulation while preventing currents from reaching the cortex and cause changes in brain excitability.MethodsA novel model-based multielectrode technique — optimizing the location and currents of a set of small electrodes placed on the scalp — was used to control the relative amount of current delivered transcranially in real and placebo multichannel tDCS conditions. The presence, intensity and localization of scalp sensations during tDCS was evaluated by means of a specifically designed questionnaire administered to the participants. We compared blinding ratings by directly addressing subjects’ ability to discriminate across conditions for both traditional (Bifocal-tDCS and Sham, using sponge electrodes) and our novel multifocal approach (both real Multifocal-tDCS and ActiSham). Changes in corticospinal excitability were monitored based on Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) recorded via concurrent Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and electromyography (EMG).ResultsParticipants perceived Multifocal-tDCS and ActiSham similarly in terms of both localization and intensity of scalp sensations, whereas traditional Bifocal stimulation was rated as more painful and annoying compared to its Sham counterpart. Additionally, differences in scalp localization were reported for active/sham Bifocal-tDCS, with Sham tDCS inducing more widespread itching and burning sensations. As for MEPs amplitude, a main effect of stimulation was found when comparing Bifocal-Sham and ActiSham (F(1,13) = 6.67, p = .023), with higher MEPs amplitudes after the application of Bifocal-Sham.ConclusionsCompared to traditional Bifocal-tDCS, ActiSham offers better participants’ blinding by inducing very similar scalp sensations to those of real Multifocal tDCS both in terms of intensity and localization, while not affecting corticospinal excitability.  相似文献   
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2015年中华医学会感染病学分会艾滋病学组发布了第三版《艾滋病诊疗指南》。新版指南强调抗病毒治疗时点前移:一旦成人确诊感染人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV), 若无禁忌宜尽早启动抗HIV治疗。对于合并机会性感染的HIV感染者, 在感染控制、病情稳定后也应及早开始抗病毒治疗。尤其强调HIV合并结核患者在CD4阳性淋巴细胞数少于200/μL的情况下, 建议抗结核两周内即开始抗病毒治疗。在抗HIV治疗用药中, 淘汰了一些毒副作用大、依从性较差的药物, 如司他夫定、去羟肌苷、茚地那韦等, 优选抗病毒效力强、服药方便的组合, 如拉米夫定、替诺福韦、依非韦伦组合。对于HIV感染的婴幼儿, 亦主张及早抗HIV治疗。对于五岁以内的幼儿, 主张确诊后即启动抗病毒治疗。对于HIV感染的孕产妇, 建议尽快予以全程、联合抗HIV治疗, 寓防于治。  相似文献   
10.
Demographic projections for hip fragility fractures indicate a rising annual incidence by virtue of a multimorbid, ageing population with more noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs are characterised by slow progression and long duration ranging from ischaemic cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to various cancers. Management of this disease burden often involves commencing patients on oral anticoagulants to reduce the risk of thromboembolic events. The use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in clinical practice has increased due to their rapid onset of action, short half-life and predictable anticoagulant effects, without the need for routine monitoring. Safe and timely surgical intervention relies on reversal of anticoagulants. However, the lack of specific evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative management of patients on DOACs with hip fractures has proved challenging; in particular, the accessibility of DOAC-specific assays, justification of the cost-benefit ratio of targeted reversal agents and indications for neuraxial anaesthesia. This has led to potentially avoidable delays in surgical intervention. Following a literature review of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of commonly used DOACs in our region including the role of surrogate markers, we propose a systematic, evidence-based guideline to the perioperative management of hip fractures DOACs. We believe this standardised protocol can be easily replicated between hospitals. We recommend that if patients are deemed suitable for a general anaesthesia, with satisfactory renal function, optimal surgical time should be 24 h following the last ingested dose of DOAC.  相似文献   
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