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1.
BackgroundVitamin D is essential in the host defense against tuberculosis (TB). Suboptimal vitamin D status is common in the hemodialysis population. Hemodialysis patients have an increased risk compared to the general population latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and LTBI in this population remains unclear.Materials and methodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study between March and May 2017. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) through QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube was used to assess LTBI. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD) levels were measured by Elecsys Vitamin D Total assay. Suboptimal vitamin D levels included vitamin D insufficiency 20–29 ng/mg and vitamin D deficiency <20 ng/mL. Predictors for LTBI were analyzed.ResultsA total of 287 participants were enrolled. The suboptimal vitamin D level was 31.4% (90/287), which including the vitamin D deficiency was 13.9% (40/287). A total of 49.1% (141/287) people received nutritional vitamin D supplementation. The prevalence of IGRA positivity in this study was 25.1% (72/287). There was no significant difference in vitamin D concentrations or the proportion of vitamin D supplementation among the IGRA-positive and IGRA-negative groups (p = 0.789 and 0.496, respectively). In multivariate analysis, age >65 years old (odds ratio (OR), 1.89; 95% CI, 1.08–3.31; p = 0.026) and TB history (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.38–8.91; p = 0.008) were independent predictors of IGRA positivity.ConclusionThis is the first study to report that vitamin D deficiency was not associated with IGRA positivity in a hemodialysis population. Aging and TB history were both independent predictors for LTBI.  相似文献   
2.

Background

There are well-established relationships between health and homelessness, and shelters can facilitate the transmission of diseases and contribute to their prevention. Adequate environmental health conditions and hygiene behaviors in homeless shelters are fundamental to the health of their clients, a marginalized population. We report the status of environmental health conditions and hygiene behaviors in homeless shelters and associated health outcomes; interventions to improve these conditions, behaviors, and outcomes; and obstacles to improvement.

Methods

PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCOhost were searched for peer-reviewed studies, and additional sources for grey literature. Studies were included if they reported primary data on one or more environmental health condition or hygiene behavior in homeless shelters.

Results

Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. Insufficient ventilation systems, unhygienic bedding, and overcrowding were the most documented environmental health and hygiene deficiencies in homeless shelters, and tuberculosis infections and skin diseases were the most documented associated health outcomes among clients. Studies frequently recommended or described implementation of behavioral and administrative controls, ventilation system improvements, and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation fixtures.

Discussion

Most studies addressed airborne transmission of tuberculosis and were conducted in high-income countries, revealing an imbalance in the literature. Insufficient resources and the transience of clients are barriers to improving hygiene behaviors and environmental conditions in homeless shelters. Further investment and research into ensuring adequate hygiene and environmental health in this setting can protect and promote the health and well-being of people experiencing homelessness.  相似文献   
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《中国现代医生》2020,58(4):50-53
目的探讨单孔胸腔镜手术治疗结核性脓胸的应用价值,并总结相关临床经验。方法回顾性分析我院胸外科2015年1月~2017年12月住院手术治疗的120例结核性脓胸患者。依据纳入、排除的相关标准,在知情同意下将纳入患者随机分为研究组(单孔胸腔镜手术组,60例)和对照组(传统开胸手术组,60例),比较两组患者的手术时间、术中出血量、术后引流量、胸腔引流管时间、术后住院时间及术后并发症。结果两组患者围术期均无死亡病例,中转开胸3例,中转开胸率为5%(3/60)。单孔胸腔镜组与传统开胸组相比较,手术时间分别为(88.00±15.77)min、(87.52±15.66)min,术中出血量分别为(236.33±15.16)mL、(443.75±43.69)mL,术后引流量分别为(423.93±41.49)m L、(663.92±16.28)mL,胸腔引流管时间分别为(2.92±0.10)d、(4.35±1.44)d,术后住院时间分别为(11.50±2.51)d、(13.65±2.52)d,两组患者的术中出血量、术后引流量、胸腔引流管时间及术后住院时间相比,差异均有统计学意义(P均0.05)。比较两组的手术时间,差异无统计学意义(P0.05)。单孔胸腔镜组术后并发症的总的发生率为6.67%(4/60),传统开胸组术后并发症的总发生率为13.33%(8/60)。结论单孔胸腔镜手术治疗结核性脓胸创伤小、并发症少、住院时间短,患者恢复快,在临床应用中值得推广。但在临床实际中应根据患者病情合理选择手术方式。  相似文献   
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ObjectiveThe detection of abnormal findings on computed tomography (CT) scans of tuberculosis contacts combined with normal plain radiographs contributes to the early detection of tuberculosis. However, the benefit of the early detection of abnormalities for the prevention of active tuberculosis during follow-up requires evaluation.MethodWe conducted retrospective comparison of the existence of CT scans of tuberculosis contacts without findings of active tuberculosis on plain radiographs at a hospital in Japan. Results: Among 243 contacts without CT scans, five developed tuberculosis during follow-up. Among 229 contacts with CT scans, 24 were judged as targets of multi-drug therapy since their CT findings were suggestive of active tuberculosis at the time of the CT screening. Among 205 contacts judged as having latent tuberculous infection with CT screening, three developed tuberculosis diseases during follow-up. Conclusion: CT scans detected abnormal findings among contacts without abnormalities of plain radiographs but there were some contacts that developed tuberculosis diseases among those with contact investigation including CT scan. The value of CT is equivocal considering the balance of true treatment, overtreatment and harm of radiation.  相似文献   
6.
目的: 分析探讨加速康复外科(ERAS)理念在脊柱结核围手术期护理应用中的效果。 方法: 收集青岛市胸科医院外科2017年7月至2020年6月收治的147例脊柱结核患者。其中,2017年7月至2018年12月收治的68例脊柱结核手术患者围手术期应用常规护理,作为对照组;2019年1月至2020年6月收治的79例脊柱结核手术患者在常规护理措施基础上融入了ERAS理念,作为ERAS组。比较两组患者的引流管拔除、最初下床进行功能锻炼、最初自主排尿的时间,术后72h疼痛(采用视觉模拟评分法)评分,住院天数,恶心呕吐、肺部感染、药物性肝损伤的发生率,以及患者满意度的差异。 结果: 与对照组相比,ERAS组患者引流管拔除时间[6.00(4.00,8.00)d和8.00(7.00,8.00)d;W=4321.000,P<0.001]、最初下床进行功能锻炼时间[2.00(2.00,4.00)d和5.50(4.25,6.00)d;W=3376.000,P<0.001]、首次在床上自主排尿时间[5.00(3.00,6.00)h和9.00(7.00,9.00)h;W=3369.000,P<0.001]、术后72h疼痛评分[3.00(2.00,4.00)分和5.00(5.00,6.00)分;W=4078.500,P<0.001]、住院总天数[19.00(18.00,21.00)d和22.00(19.00,27.00)d;W=4791.500,P<0.001]均有所下降,差异均有统计学意义。与对照组相比,ERAS组术后恶心呕吐发生率[7.6%(6/79)和19.1%(13/68);χ2=4.311,P=0.038]、肺部感染发生率[2.5%(2/79)和11.8%(8/68);χ2=4.914,P=0.027]、药物性肝损伤发生率[1.3%(1/79)和13.2%(9/68),χ2=8.258,P=0.004]均有所下降,差异均有统计学意义。ERAS组患者满意度高于对照组[96.2%(76/79)和85.3%(58/68),χ2=7.100,P=0.008],差异有统计学意义。 结论: ERAS理念应用于脊柱结核围手术期护理可以加速患者的康复,减少并发症的发生,提高患者的满意度。  相似文献   
7.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of a major health problem worldwide. Tuberculosis vaccine research has made an extraordinary progress over the past few years. However, there is still no replacement for the Bacillus Calmette‐Guérin vaccine, the only TB vaccine licensed for human use. Therefore, the discovery and development of new TB vaccines remains a priority. This article discusses current strategies used to diversify TB vaccines and includes discussion of the status of efforts to improve protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tb) infection or TB disease by developing new and safe TB vaccines. This article also highlights the current research efforts in immune‐enhancing approaches to improve vaccination efficacy. The development of more effective TB vaccines might have significant impact on global TB control.  相似文献   
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10.
目的: 探讨非活动性结核性胸膜炎与活动性结核性胸膜炎CT扫描影像表现。方法: 对2012年6月1日至2021年3月30日在首都医科大学附属北京胸科医院就诊的单纯非活动性结核性胸膜炎患者68例和同期活动性结核性胸膜炎44例的CT扫描影像表现进行比较。结果: (1) 68例非活动性结核性胸膜炎患者 CT扫描影像表现中胸膜粘连62例(91.2%),胸膜有钙化者28例(41.2%),叶间裂受累22例(32.4%),胸腔积液12例(17.6%),包裹性胸腔积液8例(11.8%)。(2)44例活动性结核性胸膜炎患者CT扫描影像表现中胸膜粘连30例(68.2%),未见胸膜钙化,叶间裂受累32例(72.7%),胸腔积液43例(97.7%),包裹性胸腔积液26例(59.1%)。(3)非活动性与活动性结核性胸膜炎CT扫描影像比较:胸膜粘连、胸膜钙化发生率高,差异均有统计学意义(χ2=9.630,P=0.002;χ2=23.737,P=0.000);叶间裂受累、胸腔积液、包裹性胸腔积液的发生率低,差异均有统计学意义(χ2=12.692,P=0.000;χ2=68.548,P=0.000;χ2=28.301,P=0.000)。结论: 非活动性结核性胸膜炎的CT扫描影像与活动性结核性胸膜炎比较胸膜粘连、胸膜钙化的发生率高,胸腔积液、包裹性胸腔积液、叶间裂受累的发生率低。识别非活动性和活动性结核性胸膜炎的CT扫描影像特点,对患者临床治疗有指导意义。  相似文献   
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