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BackgroundPerianal abscesses and anal fistulas are common. The principle of intention-to-treat has not been considered in previous systemic reviews. Thus, the comparison between primary and post-recurrence management was confused, and the recommendation of primary treatment is obscure. The current study aims to identify the optimal initial treatment for pediatric patients.MethodsUsing PRISMA guidelines, studies were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar without any language or study design restriction. The inclusion criteria include original articles or articles with original data, studies of management for a perianal abscess with or without anal fistula, and patient age of <18 years. Patients with local malignancy, Crohn's disease, or other underlying predisposing conditions were excluded. Studies without analyzing recurrence, case series of <5, and irrelevant articles were excluded in the screening stage. Of the 124 screened articles, 14 articles had no full texts or detailed information. Articles written in a language other than English or Mandarin were translated by Google Translation first and confirmed with native speakers. After the eligibility process, studies that compared identified primary managements were then included in the qualitative synthesis.ResultsThirty-one studies involving 2507 pediatric patients met the inclusion criteria. The study design consisted of two prospective case series of 47 patients and retrospective cohort studies. No randomized control trials were identified. Meta-analyses for recurrence after initial management were performed with a random-effects model. Conservative treatment and drainage revealed no difference (Odds ratio [OR], 1.222; 95% Confidential interval [CI]: 0.615–2.427, p = 0.567). Conservative management had a higher risk of recurrence than surgery without statistical significance (OR 0.278, 95% CI: 0.109–0.707, p = 0.007). Compared with incision/drainage, surgery can prevent recurrence remarkably (OR 4.360, 95% CI: 1.761–10.792, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis of different approaches within conservative treatment and operation was not performed for lacking information.ConclusionStrong recommendations cannot be made due to the lack of prospective or randomized controlled studies. However, the current study based on real primary management supports initial surgical intervention for pediatric patients with perianal abscesses and anal fistula to prevent recurrence.Level of evidenceType of study: Systemic review; Evidence level: Level II.  相似文献   
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目的研究冠状动脉慢血流现象(CSFP)患者的危险因素和分析累及冠状动脉病变的特点。方法回顾性收集本院2019年1月—2021年1月因疑似冠心病行冠状动脉造影术的514例患者,分析患者的临床资料、实验室指标及冠状动脉造影结果等相关资料,按照TIMI血流分级分为慢血流组(n=288)和对照组(n=226),比较两组之间的差异,并通过logistics回归分析探讨CSFP患者的危险因素。结果 (1)两组间在性别、民族、吸烟及饮酒史上存在统计学差异(P<0.05)。(2)CSFP组的血红蛋白、游离三碘甲状原氨酸、血肌酐值、血尿酸水平、空腹血糖水平和左室舒张末期大小均高于对照组(P<0.05);而CSFP组的血小板分布宽度、游离甲状腺素、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、载脂蛋白A1和白蛋白水平均低于对照组(P<0.05);(3)CSFP以三支血管病变最多见,为124例(43.0%),而单支血管病变和双支血管病变病例数一样,均为82例(28.5%)。单支血管病变中最多见的是前降支67例(81.7%),其次是右冠状动脉12例(14.6%),左回旋支较少见;(4)多因素logistic回归分析发现:性别、民族、游离甲状腺素、载脂蛋白A1和白蛋白水平是CSFP患者的独立危险因素。结论 (1)男性、少数民族、游离甲状腺素、载脂蛋白A1和白蛋白水平是CSFP的独立危险因素;(2)CSFP更常见于三支冠状动脉病变组,单支冠状动脉病变者更常见于左前降支。  相似文献   
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目的 本研究旨在探讨原发性高血压患者脉图参数与心血管危险分层的相关性,为原发性高血压患者心血管风险事件预警提供中医特色的依据。方法 采集435例原发性高血压患者的症状体征、脉象信息、生化指标等,分为低中危组、高危组、很高危组,采用单因素方差分析、秩和检验、有序logistic回归分析等方法,探讨原发性高血压患者脉图参数与心血管危险分层的相关性。结果 ①高血压低中危组→高危组→很高危组患者病程逐渐延长,两两组间比较有统计学差异;②高血压低中危组→高危组→很高危组患者的脉图参数H3/H1、H4/H1逐渐上升;高血压患者很高危组H5/H1、T1/T低于低中危组;③有序logistic回归分析结果显示,脉图参数T1、T4、T5、T为影响因素。结论 病程、血脂、肾功能是高血压患者心血管危险分层的影响因素之一。心血管危险分层等级的升高与脉图参数H3/H1、H4/H1、T5、T的升高及H5/H1、T4、T1的降低相关,说明脉图能一定程度上反映原发性高血压患者血管壁增厚、血管内壁受损、血管硬化及左心室收缩功能的减退程度。  相似文献   
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BackgroundLiver resection is commonly performed for hepatic tumors, however preoperative risk stratification remains challenging. We evaluated the performance of contemporary prediction models for short-term mortality after liver resection in patients with and without cirrhosis.MethodsThis retrospective cohort study examined National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. We included patients who underwent liver resections from 2014 to 2019. VOCAL-Penn, MELD, MELD-Na, ALBI, and Mayo risk scores were evaluated in terms of model discrimination and calibration for 30-day post-operative mortality.ResultsA total 15,198 patients underwent liver resection, of whom 249 (1.6%) experienced 30-day post-operative mortality. The VOCAL-Penn score had the highest discrimination (area under the ROC curve [AUC] 0.74) compared to all other models. The VOCAL-Penn score similarly outperformed other models in patients with (AUC 0.70) and without (AUC 0.74) cirrhosis.ConclusionThe VOCAL-Penn score demonstrated superior predictive performance for 30-day post-operative mortality after liver resection as compared to existing clinical standards.  相似文献   
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《Drug discovery today》2022,27(10):103321
Pain is a constant in our lives. The efficacy of drug therapy administered by the parenteral route is often limited either by the physicochemical characteristics of the drug itself or its adsorption–distribution–metabolism–excretion (ADME) mechanisms. One promising alternative is the design of innovative drug delivery systems that can improve the pharmacokinetics |(PK) and/or reduce the toxicity of traditionally used drugs. In this review, we discuss several products that have been approved by the main regulatory agencies (i.e., nano- and microsystems, implants, and oil-based solutions), highlighting the newest technologies that govern both locally and systemically the delivery of drugs. Finally, we also discuss the risk assessment of the scale-up process required, given the impact that this approach could have on drug manufacturing.Teaser: The management of pain by way of the parenteral route can be improved using complex drug delivery systems (e.g., micro- and nanosystems) which require high-level assessment and shorten the regulatory pathway.  相似文献   
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ObjectiveTo assess the association between adherence to a Mediterranean lifestyle and changes in pain, and its characteristics over time in older adults.Patients and MethodsWe analyzed data from 864 and 862 community-dwelling individuals aged 65+ years from the Study on Cardiovascular Health, Nutrition and Frailty in Older Adults in Spain (Seniors-ENRICA) Seniors-ENRICA-1 (2008–2010 to 2012) and Seniors-ENRICA-2 (2015–2017 to 2019) cohorts, with a median follow-up of 2.8 and 2.4 years, respectively. Adherence to a Mediterranean lifestyle was assessed at baseline with the 27-item Mediterranean lifestyle (MEDLIFE) index. Pain changes over time were calculated with a pain scale that assessed the frequency, severity, and the number of pain locations both at baseline and follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted relative risk ratios (RRRs) were obtained using multinomial logistic regression.ResultsIn the pooled cohorts, after a median follow-up of 2.6 years, pain worsened for 697 participants, improved for 734, and did not change for 295. Compared with the lowest category of MEDLIFE adherence, those in the highest category showed an RRR of improvement vs worsening of overall pain of 1.85 (95% CI, 1.28 to 2.67; P-trend<.001). MEDLIFE adherence was also linked to improvement in pain frequency (RRR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.31 to 3.01; P-trend=.001), pain severity (RRR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.33 to 3.00; P-trend=.001), and a reduction in the number of pain locations (RRR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.50; P-trend=.004). Limitations of this study are the use of self-reported lifestyle data.ConclusionA Mediterranean lifestyle was associated with improvement of pain characteristics in older adults. Experimental studies should assess the efficacy of an integral lifestyle approach for the management of pain in older adults.  相似文献   
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社区动脉粥样硬化风险(ARIC)研究是1987年由美国心、肺和血液研究所资助的关注非洲裔美国人心血管健康的最大研究。旨在调查心脏病的危险因素以及心血管疾病与认知之间的联系。ARIC研究的许多发现加深了对动脉粥样硬化性心血管病病因的了解,在心血管病预防领域做出了重大贡献,证明了以人群为基础的研究对改善健康和预防疾病的重要性。主要概述ARIC研究的起源、目的、研究设计、对心血管医学的贡献以及未来的发展方向。  相似文献   
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