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1.
IntroductionThe Modena bleeding score is a categorical rating scale that allows the assessment of the surgical field in relation to bleeding during endoscopic surgery. It has recently been presented and validated in the field of endoscopic ear surgery by the present authors. The Modena bleeding score provides five grades for rating the surgical field during endoscopic procedures (from grade 1 ? no bleeding to grade 5 ? bleeding that prevents every surgical procedure except those dedicated to bleeding control).ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to validate the Modena bleeding score in the setting of endoscopic sinus surgery.MethodsFifteen three-minute videos of endoscopic sinus surgery procedures (each containing three bleeding situations) were evaluated by 15 specialists, using the Modena bleeding score. Intra and inter-rater reliability were assessed, and the clinical validity of the Modena bleeding score was calculated using a referent standard.ResultsThe data analysis showed an intra-rater reliability ranging from 0.6336 to 0.861. The inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.676 to 0.844. The clinical validity was α = 0.70; confidence limits: 0.64 ? 0.75, corresponding to substantial agreement.ConclusionThe Modena bleeding score is an effective method to score bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery. Its application in future research could facilitate the performance and efficacy assessment of surgical techniques, materials or devices aimed to bleeding control during endoscopic sinus surgery.  相似文献   
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《Neuro-Chirurgie》2022,68(4):414-425
Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) has become an invaluable adjunct to vascular and oncological neurosurgery, reducing the risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Several technologies have been developed during the last two decades, including laser-based techniques, videomicroscopy, intraoperative MRI, indocyanine green angiography, and thermography. Although these technologies have been thoroughly studied and clinically applied outside the operative room, current practice lacks an optimal technology that perfectly fits the workflow within the neurosurgical operative room. The different available technologies have specific strengths but suffer several drawbacks, mainly including limited spatial and/or temporal resolution. An optimal CBF monitoring technology should meet particular criteria for intraoperative use: excellent spatial and temporal resolution, integration in the operative workflow, real-time quantitative monitoring, ease of use, and non-contact technique. We here review the main contemporary technologies for intraoperative CBF monitoring and their current and potential future applications in neurosurgery.  相似文献   
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《Brain stimulation》2022,15(2):337-351
BackgroundAbnormalities in frontoparietal network (FPN) were observed in many neuropsychiatric diseases including substance use disorders. A growing number of studies are using dual-site-tACS with frontoparietal synchronization to engage this network. However, a computational pathway to inform and optimize parameter space for frontoparietal synchronization is still lacking. In this case study, in a group of participants with methamphetamine use disorders, we proposed a computational pathway to extract optimal electrode montage while accounting for stimulation intensity using structural and functional MRI.MethodsSixty methamphetamine users completed an fMRI drug cue-reactivity task. Four main steps were taken to define electrode montage and adjust stimulation intensity using 4x1 high-definition (HD) electrodes for a dual-site-tACS; (1) Frontal seed was defined based on the maximum electric fields (EF) predicted by simulation of HD montage over DLPFC (F3/F4 in EEG 10–10), (2) frontal seed-to-whole brain context-dependent correlation was calculated to determine connected regions to frontal seeds, (3) center of connected cluster in parietal cortex was selected as a location for placing the second set of HD electrodes to shape the informed montage, (4) individualized head models were used to determine optimal stimulation intensity considering underlying brain structure. The informed montage was compared to montages with large electrodes and classic frontoparietal HD montages (F3-P3/F4-P4) in terms of tACS-induced EF and ROI-to-ROI task-based/resting-state connectivity.ResultsCompared to the large electrodes, HD frontoparietal montages allow for a finer control of the spatial peak fields in the main nodes of the FPN at the cost of lower maximum EF (large-pad/HD: max EF[V/m] = 0.37/0.11, number of cortical sub-regions that EF exceeds 50% of the max = 77/13). For defining stimulation targets based on EF patterns, using group-level head models compared to a single standard head model results in comparable but significantly different seed locations (6.43 mm Euclidean distance between the locations of the frontal maximum EF in standard-space). As expected, significant task-based/resting-state connections were only found between frontal-parietal locations in the informed montage. Cue-induced craving score was correlated with frontoparietal connectivity only in the informed montage (r = ?0.24). Stimulation intensity in the informed montage, and not in the classic HD montage, needs 40% reduction in the parietal site to reduce the disparity in EF between stimulation sites.ConclusionThis study provides some empirical insights to montage and dose selection in dual-site-tACS using individual brain structures and functions and proposes a computational pathway to use head models and functional MRI to define (1) optimum electrode montage for targeting FPN in a context of interest (drug-cue-reactivity) and (2) proper transcranial stimulation intensity.  相似文献   
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目的 了解某设备实验条件下不同位置脉冲X射线电离辐射水平,提出适当的防护建议。方法 采用热释光测量方法,分别在设备舱周围不同方向不同距离布放热释光剂量计,累积一定数量脉冲辐射后进行测量;采用电离室型X、γ剂量率仪(FJ-347A)实时测量工作状态下不同距离处电离辐射剂量率水平。依据《电离辐射防护与辐射源安全基本标准》(GB18871—2002)规定的职业照射人员和公众个人剂量限值提出不同工作位辐射防护建议。结果 热释光剂量计累计接收3 000个脉冲辐射,设备舱外壁0.01~8.98 mGy,顶部0.01~15.67 mGy,距外壁1~12 m之间0.01~2.18 mGy,工作位0 mGy。工作状态下,X射线剂量率仪测得距设备舱外侧壁1~20 m之间空气比释动能率范围0.26~16 mGy/h。结论 热释光剂量计、电离室型剂量率仪测量结果基本一致,说明两种方法均可用于脉冲X射线测量;工作状态下设备舱外近距离处辐射剂量率较高,可通过采取防护措施或者限制人员工作量以满足辐射防护要求。  相似文献   
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《Clinical neurophysiology》2021,132(12):3104-3115
ObjectiveWe aimed to establish an objective neurophysiological test protocol that can be used to assess the somatosensory nervous system.MethodsIn order to assess most fiber subtypes of the somatosensory nervous system, repetitive stimuli of seven different modalities (touch, vibration, pinprick, cold, contact heat, laser, and warmth) were synchronized with the electroencephalogram (EEG) and applied on the cheek and dorsum of the hand and dorsum of the foot in 21 healthy subjects and three polyneuropathy (PNP) patients. Latencies and amplitudes of the modalities were assessed and compared. Patients received quantitative sensory testing (QST) as reference.ResultsWe found reproducible evoked potentials recordings for touch, vibration, pinprick, contact-heat, and laser stimuli. The recording of warm-evoked potentials was challenging in young healthy subjects and not applicable in patients. Latencies were shortest within Aβ-fiber-mediated signals and longest within C-fibers. The test protocol detected function loss within the Aβ-fiber and Aδ-fiber-range in PNP patients. This function loss corresponded with QST findings.ConclusionIn this pilot study, we developed a neurophysiological test protocol that can specifically assess most of the somatosensory modalities. Despite technical challenges, initial patient data appear promising regarding a possible future clinical application.SignificanceEstablished and custom-made stimulators were combined to assess different fiber subtypes of the somatosensory nervous system using modality-specific evoked potentials.  相似文献   
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目的:探讨保妇康凝胶联合诺氟沙星治疗宫颈糜烂的临床效果。方法将100例宫颈糜烂患者根据随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组各50例。观察组给予保妇康凝胶和诺氟沙星联合治疗,对照组单独给予治糜灵栓治疗,比较两组患者临床症状的变化,并对临床疗效进行评价。结果观察组治愈率为86.00%,明显高于对照组的74.00%,临床症状评分改善较对照组明显,且其临床症状消失的时间短于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论保妇康凝胶与诺氟沙星合用比治糜灵栓治疗宫颈糜烂效果更佳,且治愈时间上明显较优,值得临床上推广应用。  相似文献   
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Introduction: Ocular dysfunctions and toxicities induced by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are rarely reviewed and not frequently received attention by treating physicians compared to other adverse effects (e.g. endocrinologic, cognitive and metabolic). However, some are frequent and progressive even in therapeutic concentrations or result in permanent blindness. Although some adverse effects are non-specific, others are related to the specific pharmacodynamics of the drug.

Areas covered: This review was written after detailed search in PubMed, EMBASE, ISI web, SciELO, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register databases (from 1970 to 2019). It summarized the reported ophthalmologic adverse effects of the currently available AEDs; their risks and possible pathogenic mechanisms. They include ocular motility dysfunctions, retinopathy, maculopathy, glaucoma, myopia, optic neuropathy, and impaired retinal vascular autoregulation. In general, ophthalmo-neuro- or retino-toxic adverse effects of AEDs are classified as type A (dose-dependent), type B (host-dependent or idiosyncratic) or type C which is due to the cumulative effect from long-term use.

Expert opinion: Ocular adverse effects of AEDs are rarely reviewed although some are frequent or may result in permanent blindness. Increasing knowledge of their incidence and improving understanding of their risks and pathogenic mechanisms are crucial for monitoring, prevention, and management of patients’ at risk.  相似文献   

10.
BackgroundPercutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is required for Levodopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel (LCIG) delivery in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as for enteral feeding in a variety of neurological disorders. Buried Bumper Syndrome (BBS) is a serious complication of PEG. The frequency of BBS in patients receiving LCIG treatment has never been reported.ObjectivesTo compare the frequency of BBS in patients on LCIG treatment or on enteral feeding over the past 12 years and identify possible risk factors.MethodsWe reviewed prospectively recorded data from 2009 to 2020 on two case-series: LCIG-treated PD patients and non-PD patients on enteral nutrition. We identified all BBS incidences. Patients’ characteristics, clinical manifestations, BBS management, possible risk factors and outcomes were analyzed.ResultsDuring the 12 years, 35 PD patients underwent PEG insertion for LCIG infusion, and 123 non-PD patients for nutritional support. There were eight cases of BBS in six PD patients (17.1%). Six of them were effectively managed without treatment discontinuation. Of the enteral feeding patients, only one developed BBS (0.8%) (p < 0.001). We identified inappropriate PEG site aftercare, weight gain, early onset PD, longer survival, treatment duration, dementia and PEG system design as potential risk factors for BBS development.ConclusionsBBS occurs more frequently in LCIG patients than in patients receiving enteral feeding. If detected early, it can be successfully managed, and serious sequalae or treatment discontinuation can be avoided. Regular endoscopic follow-up visits of LCIG-treated patients and increased awareness in patients and clinicians are recommended.  相似文献   
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