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Interventions that involve key aspects of community organizing, such as quantitative community assessments and organizational partnership support for the community, may promote residents' health. We evaluated the effectiveness of this form of intervention on mortality and its variability across individual-level household equivalized income tertiles, comparing 52,858 residents aged 65 and above in 12 intervention municipalities to 39,006 residents in nine control municipalities in Japan. During 1,166 days of follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for cumulative mortality among men in the intervention municipalities was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.99) compared to those in the control group, with similar results being observed across all income levels. Active utilization of data to evaluate communities and building intersectoral partnerships might lower older male residents’ mortality risk, regardless of their income status.  相似文献   
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ObjectivesTo examine changes in urinary continence for post-acute, Complex Continuing Care hospital patients from time of admission to short-term follow-up, either in hospital or after discharge to long-term care or home with services.DesignRetrospective cohort study of patients in Complex Continuing Care hospitals using clinical data collected with interRAI Minimum Data Set 2.0 and interRAI Resident Assessment Instrument Home Care.Setting and ParticipantsAdults aged 18 years and older, admitted to Complex Continuing Care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 2009 and 2015 (n = 78,913).MethodsA multistate transition model was used to characterize the association between patient characteristics measured at admission and changes in urinary continence state transitions (continent, sometimes continent, and incontinent) between admission and follow-up.ResultsThe cohort included 27,896 patients. At admission, 9583 (34.3%) patients belonged to the continent state, 6441 (23.09%) patients belonged to the sometimes incontinent state, and the remaining 11,872 (42.6%) patients belonged to the incontinent state. For patients who were continent at admission, the majority (62.7%) remained continent at follow-up. However, nearly a quarter (23.9%) transitioned to the sometimes continent state, and an additional 13.4% became incontinent at follow-up. Several factors were associated with continence state transitions, including cognitive impairment, rehabilitation potential, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, and hip fracture.Conclusions and ImplicationsThis study suggests that urinary incontinence is a prevalent problem for Complex Continuing Care hospital patients and multiple factors are associated with continence state transitions. Standardized assessment of urinary incontinence is helpful in this setting to identify patients in need of further assessment and patient-centered intervention and as a quality improvement metric to examine changes in continence from admission to discharge.  相似文献   
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目的 探讨血液肿瘤患者接受化疗后发生肛周感染的危险因素。方法 采用回顾性病例对照研究的方法,对四川省某三级甲等医院血液内科2020年12月—2021年5月收治的进行化疗的348例血液肿瘤住院患者相关资料(人口学特征、疾病特征、医疗及护理病例记录、实验室检查结果)予以回顾性分析,根据出院诊断发生肛周感染的病例作为病例组,其余病例作为对照组,统计血液肿瘤患者接受化疗后肛周感染的发生率,采用单因素分析和二元Logistic回归分析肛周感染的危险因素。结果 348例血液肿瘤化疗患者,发生肛周感染35例,感染率为10.1%;Logistic回归分析显示,年龄<60岁(OR=8.776,P=0.039)、痔疮史(OR=7.733,P<0.001)、肛周感染史(OR=14.981,P<0.001)、腹泻(OR=3.893,P=0.019)及白细胞计数<1×109/L(OR=6.851,P=0.002)是血液肿瘤患者接受化疗后发生肛周感染的独立危险因素。结论 血液肿瘤患者接受化疗后肛周感染的发生率较高,年龄<60岁、痔疮史、肛周感染史、腹泻、白细胞计数<1×109/L导致血液肿瘤化疗患者肛周感染率增加,在护理化疗期的血液肿瘤患者过程中,应该结合肛周感染的危险因素,采取针对性干预措施,降低肛周感染发生率。  相似文献   
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《Journal of endodontics》2022,48(2):208-212.e3
IntroductionDiabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex multisystemic disorder that affects an estimated 21 million Americans. No studies have evaluated the association of DM with the prevalence of each pulpal diagnosis. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of each pulp diagnosis including symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP), asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis, reversible pulpitis, normal pulp, and pulp necrosis (PN) in DM patients against a nondiabetic control group.MethodsA retrospective chart review was approved by Rutgers University Institutional Review Board. The prevalence of the diagnoses SIP, asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis, reversible pulpitis, normal pulp, and PN was calculated from AxiUm (Exan software, Las Vegas, NV) electronic health records at Rutgers School of Dental Medicine. The chi-square test was used to see the relationship between the 2 categoric variables. Second, binary logistic regression analyses were performed for each group.ResultsA total of 2979 teeth were diagnosed with a pulp condition between April 2013 and November 2018. The total tooth number of DM patients was 682, whereas the tooth number of nondiabetic patients was 2297. In the subgroup of patients younger than 40 years old, SIP was notably more prevalent in DM patients. In addition, the prevalence of PN in elderly DM patients (60–69 years old) was significantly higher than in the control group.ConclusionsThe prevalence of SIP in DM patients was significantly higher compared with the control group (<40 years old), suggesting the possibility that DM could hypersensitize the subgroup of patients younger than 40 years old to pulpitis pain.  相似文献   
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BackgroundDespite high rate of cure in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in clinical trials, outcomes in real-world practice are dismal. We utilized National Cancer Database (NCDB) to explore utilization of multiagent therapy in APL and identify any disparities in treatment in real-world practices.Patients and MethodsNCDB categorizes use of systemic chemotherapy into single agent versus multiagent therapy. Some patients received hormonal therapy, immunotherapy, and unknown therapy; details of these treatments could not be ascertained. We therefore used multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate effects of covariates on the probability of multiagent therapy use in 6678 patients.ResultsCompared to patients >60 years, patients aged 0 to 18 years (hazard ratio[HR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-5.5, P< .0001), 19 to 40 years (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.54, P= .03), and 41 to 60 years (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9, P< .0001) were more likely to receive multiagent therapy. Patients with Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 0 (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3, P= .001) and CCI of 1 (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9, P= .04) had a higher likelihood of receiving multiagent therapy than patients with CCI ≥ 3. Patients treated at academic cancer centers, compared to those treated at community cancer center (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7, P= .001), comprehensive community cancer center (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8, P< .0001), and integrated network cancer center (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, P= .02) were more likely to be treated with multiagent therapy. Compared to the patients with private insurance, those with Medicaid had increased likelihood (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4, P= .04) whereas uninsured patients had a lower likelihood of receiving multiagent therapy (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8, P= .0005).ConclusionTo our knowledge, this study is the first and the largest scale analysis of treatment practices in APL in real-world practices. Our findings highlight significant disparities in treatment of APL based on age, insurance, and health-system factors.  相似文献   
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ObjectivesTo determine which nursing home (NH) resident-level admission characteristics are associated with potentially preventable emergency department (PPED) transfers.DesignWe conducted a population-level retrospective cohort study on NH resident data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 and linked to the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System for ED transfers.SettingWe used all NH resident admission assessments from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2018, in Ontario.ParticipantsThe cohort included the admission assessment of 56,433 NH residents.MethodsPPED transfers were defined based on the International Classification of Disease, Version 10 (Canadian) We used logistic regression with 10-fold cross-validation and computed average marginal effects to identify the association between resident characteristics at NH admission and PPED transfers within 92 days after admission.ResultsOverall, 6.2% of residents had at least 1 PPED transfer within 92 days of NH admission. After adjustment, variables that had a prevalence of 10% or more that were associated with a 1% or more absolute increase in the risk of a PPED transfer included polypharmacy [of cohort (OC) 84.4%, risk difference (RD) 2.0%], congestive heart failure (OC 29.0%, RD 3.0%), and renal failure (OC 11.6%, RD 1.2%). Female sex (OC 63.2%, RD -1.3%), a do not hospitalize directive (OC 24.4%, RD -2.6%), change in mood (OC 66.9%, RD -1.2%), and Alzheimer's or dementia (OC 62.1%, RD -1.2%) were more than 10% prevalent and associated with a 1% or more absolute decrease in the risk of a PPED.Conclusions and ImplicationsThough many routinely collected resident characteristics were associated with a PPED transfer, the absence of sufficiently discriminating characteristics suggests that emergency department visits by NH residents are multifactorial and difficult to predict. Future studies should assess the clinical utility of risk factor identification to prevent transfers.  相似文献   
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We carried out a longitudinal study on the associations between residential greenness and depression risk in urban areas in Finland. Residential greenness indicators were estimated within various buffer sizes around individuals' home locations (selected n = 14424) using time-series of normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) and CORINE land cover data (CLC). We estimated individuals’ cumulative exposure to residential greenness over a 5-years and 14-years follow-up. We used doctor-diagnosed depression and Beck Depression Inventory for depression assessment. Our multi-logistic model showed an inverse association between residential greenness and depression, implying lowered depression risk for individuals with higher residential greenness. The association was particularly evident when using NDVI-based residential greenness (within a buffer of 100 m radius) and doctor-diagnosis depression data, adjusted with individual-level covariates. The odds ratio was 0.56 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.96) for the 5-years follow-up, and 0.54 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.98) for the 14-years follow-up. The associations between CLC-based total residential green space and depression varied across the different buffer sizes. In general, all the associations depended on the type of depression assessment, quality of greenness indicators, and the spatial scale of analysis. The associations also varied across the socio-demographic groups and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage level.  相似文献   
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Demographic situation, changes in the role of women in society and growing demand for long-term care (LTC) of older people have challenged the ability to meet the growing LTC needs in most developed countries. In countries where responsibility for LTC is still largely laid on families, it is, however, even more critical and calls for improvements in formal LTC systems. More intensive stakeholder collaboration in LTC policy development, organising and delivery are of primary importance in improving LTC systems. Such collaboration, however, is not always successful; thus, it is critical to understand what makes it effective and efficient. In this paper, we specifically look into multistakeholder collaboration in LTC in Lithuania, one of the fastest ageing countries in the EU, with the demand for LTC services growing fast and exceeding the supply despite rising business and NGO engagement. To determine facilitators of such collaboration, we build on the data obtained through eight focus group discussions with all key stakeholder representatives (LTC policymakers, organisers and service providers [public, private and NGOs], 54 participants in total). Our findings indicate that in addition to national and organisational level facilitators studied in prior research, there are important individual level factors, such as meaningfulness at work, concern and care for others, possibility for personal growth and development, satisfaction with supervision, a sense of belonging and role clarity. On the other hand, our results show that collaboration is constrained by a shortage of human resources, increased workload caused by growing LTC demand, bureaucratic requirements, legal restrictions, lack of awareness of LTC service availability among elder persons, and prevailing social norms and attitudes to institutionalised care. Interestingly, a lack of financial resources is not perceived as a major constraint.  相似文献   
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