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Background and objective

Pressure ulcer (PU) is one of the important and frequent complications of hospitalization, associated with high treatment costs. The present study was conducted to determine the incidence of PU and its direct treatment costs for patients in intensive care unit (ICU) in Iran.

Material and methods

In this retrospective study, medical records of 643 discharged patients from ICU of two selected hospitals were examined. The demographic and clinical data of all patients and data of resources and services usage for patients with PU were extracted through their records. Data analysis was done using logistic regression tests in SPSS 22 software. The cost of PU treatment was calculated for each grade of ulcer.

Results

The findings showed that 8.9% of patients developed PU during their stay in ICU. Muscular paralysis (OR?=?5.1), length of stay in ICU (OR?=?4.0), diabetes (OR?=?3.5) age (OR?=?2.9), smoking (OR?=?2.1) and trauma (OR?=?1.4) were the most important risk factors of PU. The average cost of PU treatment varied from USD 12 for grade I PU to USD 66?834 for grade IV PUs. The total treatment costs for all studied patients with PU was estimated at USD 519?991.

Conclusion

The cost of PU treatment is significant. Since the preventive measures are more cost-effective than therapeutic measures, therefore, effective preventive interventions are recommended.  相似文献   
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AimThe aim of this study was to develop a Turkish version of the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Assessment Tool 2.0 (PUKAT 2.0) and determine its validity and reliability.Materials and MethodsThis was a cross-cultural adaptation and validation study. The study sample included a total of 451 participants (232 nurses and 219 nursing students). The validity of the Turkish version of the PUKAT 2.0 was evaluated with linguistic validity, content validity, item validity (item difficulty, discriminating index), and construct validity (known-groups technique) analyses. The reliability of the tool was evaluated by conducting a test–retest analysis.ResultsContent validity index (CVI) for the items (Item-CVI) ranged from 0.83 to 1.00 and the CVI for the scale (Scale-CVI) was 0.95. The difficulty index for 21 items ranged from 0.10 to 0.63. Four items were found to be too difficult. Item discriminating index values ranged from 0.00 to 0.61. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.80.ConclusionThe Turkish version of the Pressure Injury Knowledge Assessment Tool 2.0 (PIKAT 2.0-Tr) is supported by acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to evaluate the knowledge of nurses and nursing students in Turkey about the prevention of PI.  相似文献   
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ObjectivesThis study aimed to validate the skin temperature on sacral region and vascular attributes as early warning signs of pressure injury.MethodsTotally 415 patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit from August 2018 to April 2019 were prospectively screened. Daily blood pressure and blood glucose affecting vascular attributes and the relative skin temperature of sacral region were measured for 10 consecutive days. Collect the changes of these indicators during the occurrence of pressure injury. The optimal cut-off values of indicators were determined by X-tile analysis. The risk ratios of indicators associated with pressure injury were compared using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.ResultsThere were no obvious interactions among blood pressure, blood glucose and relative skin temperature (P > 0.05). The optimal cutoff value for above indicators was 63.5 mmHg, 9.9 mmol/L and −0.1 °C, respectively. The incidence of pressure injury peaked on the 4th and 5th day after hospitalization when categorizing the patients into low- and high-risk groups according to the cutoff values (P < 0.05). Based on relative skin temperature, patients in the high-risk group were more likely to develop pressure injury (hazard ratio = 6.36, 95% confidence interval = 3.91, 10.36), when compared to the other two indicators of blood pressure and blood glucose.ConclusionStringent skin temperature and vascular attributes measurements were necessary for preventing pressure injury. Nursing measures should be taken according to warning sings to reduce the incidence of pressure injury.  相似文献   
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目的 观察电针对狗幽门压力、胃黏膜血流量的调控作用及其与血浆、胃黏膜组织中一氧化氮 (NO) ,一氧化氮合酶 (NOS)水平变化的关系 ,以探讨电针对胃黏膜保护作用的机制。方法 将 2 0只狗随机分为 4组 :空白对照组、非经非穴组、上巨虚组、足三里组 (每组 5只 )。采用胃压测量仪、激光多普勒血流仪监测幽门压力、频率及胃黏膜血流量的变化 ,同步测定血浆及胃黏膜组织中NO ,NOS含量 ,并观察变化规律。结果 电针后足三里组幽门括约肌总压力、基础压下降、频率下降 (P <0 .0 5 ) ,胃黏膜血流量显著升高 (4 .5 1± 0 .73→ 6.90± 1.0 1,P <0 .0 1) ,血浆及胃黏膜组织中NO ,NOS含量显著升高 (P <0 .0 5 ) ,上巨虚组仅幽门括约肌总压力下降 ,血浆NO含量上升。但足三里组各项监测指标变化趋势更明显 ,其他组变化无显著性。结论 电针可使狗幽门压力、频率下降 ,使胃黏膜血流量增加 ,与影响幽门压力、胃黏膜血流量的某些活性物质的含量改变有关 ,并具有一定的经络和穴位特异性。  相似文献   
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目的 拟比较以两种不同方法测定低水平压力支持通气(pressure support ventilation,PSV)病人的气道阻断压(P0.1)与自主呼吸时常规方法测定值的相关性。方法 12例机械通气病人,断开呼吸机自主呼吸时以常规方法测定P0.1得到P0.1-SB:在PSV水平为5cmH20,以常规方法和按压呼气末暂停键测定P0.1分别得到P0.1-PSV5和P0.1-PSV5eeo.分析后二者与前者之间的相关性。结果 P0.1-SB与P0.1-PSV5之间差异无显著性,P0.1-PSV5ee0分别小于P0.1-SB与P0.1-PSV5,差异有显著性;P0.1-PSV5eeo与P0.1-PSV5和P0.1-SB之间的相关系数均为0.97。结论 按压呼气末暂停键测定PSV水平为5cmH2O的P0.1值与常规方法测定的PSV水平为5cmH2O以及自主呼吸时的测定值相比,其值偏小,但前者与后二者之间具有良好的相关性。  相似文献   
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The systolic hump in the aortic blood pressure wave is defined as the aorticresistance component proportional to the aortic blood flow superimposed on the windkessel component. An electrical analogue comprising a series resistance (aortic resistance) plus a resistance (peripheral resistance) and capacitance (aortic compliance) in parallel (i.e. windkessel component) is used for analysis. Curve fitting using the leastsquares method is performed on calculated and measured blood pressure waves from dogs under haemodynamical conditions induced by infusion of three drugs (noradrenaline, isoproterenol and acetylcholine). The curve fitting RMS (root mean square) errors are <3% for blood pressure waves and <30% for blood flow waves, with good agreement between measured and calculated blood flow waveforms. Infusion of noradrenaline and acetylcholine is found to induce a significant decrease and increase in the aortic resistance, respectively. Although only a small fraction of the blood pressure wave, the systolic hump has a marked effect on the systolic pressure waveform.  相似文献   
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目的 :探讨次侧切开内括约肌治疗肛裂术前、术后肛门直肌压力的变化。方法 :采用自行设计的次侧方内括约肌切开加双缘结扎术治疗 期肛裂 6 0例 ,测定手术前后肛门直肠压力 ,并与 6 0例正常人肛压比较 ,评价新术式治疗 期肛裂的临床疗效及其对肛门功能的影响。结果 :显示术后患者肛管静息压显著降低 ,与术前比较有显著性差异 (P <0 .0 1) ,与正常人比较无显著性差异 (P>0 .0 5 ) ;肛管最大收缩压与术前及正常人比较无显著性差异 (P>0 .0 5 )。结论 :次侧方内括约肌切开加双缘结扎术能有效地解除内括约肌痉挛 ,从根本上消除高肛压 ,从而彻底治愈肛裂 ,而且不影响肛门功能。  相似文献   
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