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1.
Many environmental risk factors for hepatobiliary cancers are known but whether they are associated with specific cancer types is unclear. We present here a novel approach of assessing standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of previously diagnosed comorbidities for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gallbladder cancer (GBC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and ampullary cancer. The 13 comorbidities included alcohol and nonalcohol related liver disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gallstone disease, viral and other kinds of hepatitis, infection of bile ducts, hepatic and other autoimmune diseases, obesity and diabetes. Patients were identified from the Swedish Inpatient Register from 1987 to 2018, and their cancers were followed from 1997 onwards. SIRs for HCC were 80 to 100 in men and women diagnosed with hepatitis C virus and they were also >10 in patients diagnosed with hepatitis B virus, other kind of hepatitis, hepatic autoimmune disease and nonalcohol related liver disease. Many of these risks, as well as alcohol related liver disease, were either specific to HCC or were shared with intrahepatic CCA. For GBC, CCA and ampullary cancer infection of bile ducts was the main risk factor. Gallstone disease, nonhepatic autoimmune diseases and diabetes were associated with all hepatobiliary cancers. The limitations of the study include inability to cover some rare risk factors and limited follow-up time. Many of the considered comorbidities are characterized by chronic inflammation and/or overt immune disturbance in autoimmune diseases. The results suggest that local chronic inflammation and a related immune disturbance is the carcinogenic trigger for all these cancers.  相似文献   
2.
Smoking cessation reduces the risk of death, improves recovery, and reduces the risk of hospital readmission. Evidence and policy support hospital admission as an ideal time to deliver smoking-cessation interventions. However, this is not well implemented in practice. In this systematic review, the authors summarize the literature on smoking-cessation implementation strategies and evaluate their success to guide the implementation of best-practice smoking interventions into hospital settings. The CINAHL Complete, Embase, MEDLINE Complete, and PsycInfo databases were searched using terms associated with the following topics: smoking cessation, hospitals, and implementation. In total, 14,287 original records were identified and screened, resulting in 63 eligible articles from 56 studies. Data were extracted on the study characteristics, implementation strategies, and implementation outcomes. Implementation outcomes were guided by Proctor and colleagues' framework and included acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, and sustainability. The findings demonstrate that studies predominantly focused on the training of staff to achieve implementation. Brief implementation approaches using a small number of implementation strategies were less successful and poorly sustained compared with well resourced and multicomponent approaches. Although brief implementation approaches may be viewed as advantageous because they are less resource-intensive, their capacity to change practice in a sustained way lacks evidence. Attempts to change clinician behavior or introduce new models of care are challenging in a short time frame, and implementation efforts should be designed for long-term success. There is a need to embrace strategic, well planned implementation approaches to embed smoking-cessation interventions into hospitals and to reap and sustain the benefits for people who smoke.  相似文献   
3.
目的 分析重庆市肺癌发病死亡和疾病负担归因于被动吸烟的情况,为开展肺癌防治提供建议。 方法 肺癌死亡个案数据来源于2019年重庆市肿瘤登记报告系统,被动吸烟率来自2013年重庆市慢性病及危险因素监测。计算人群归因危险度百分比(population attributable risk percent, PAR%)、被动吸烟导致的肺癌发病、死亡和疾病负担。采用Excel 2010与SPSS 25.0进行统计分析,率的比较采用χ2检验。 结果 2013年30岁及以上成年人被动吸烟率为52.37%。2019年重庆市30岁及以上人群肺癌发病率与标化发病率分别为118.44/10万与80.83/10万,死亡率与标化死亡率分别为96.51/10万、63.58/10万。肺癌发病率和死亡率归因于被动吸烟的PAR%分别为19.76和19.04,归因发病率与归因标化发病率分别为23.41/10万和16.34/10万,归因死亡率与归因标化死亡率分别为18.38/10万和12.40/10万。2019年重庆市30岁及以上肺癌早死所致寿命损失年率(years of life lost,YLL)、残疾所致寿命损失年率(years lived with disability,YLD)、调整伤残寿命损失年率(disability adjusted life year,DALY)分别为21.16‰、0.31‰、21.47‰,YLL率、YLD率、DALY率归因于被动吸烟的PAR%分别为21.16、19.76和20.49,归因YLL率为4.34‰,归因YLD率为0.06‰,归因DALY率为4.40‰。 结论 2019年重庆市30岁及以上人群肺癌发病率、死亡率、YLL率、DALY率高,被动吸烟率高,肺癌归因于被动吸烟的疾病负担重,应加强落实控烟工作。  相似文献   
4.

Introduction

For never-smokers (smoked <100 lifetime cigarettes), lung cancer (LC) has emerged as an important issue. We aimed to investigate the effects of prevalence changes in tobacco smoking and particulate matter (PM) 2.5 (PM2.5) levels on LC in Taiwan, in relation to contrasting PM2.5 levels, between Northern Taiwan (NT) and Southern Taiwan (ST).

Methods

We reviewed 371,084 patients with LC to assess smoking prevalence and correlations between the incidence of adenocarcinoma lung cancer (AdLC) and non-AdLC. Two subsets were selected to assess different AdLC stage trends and the effect of PM2.5 on survival of patients with AdLC.

Results

From 1995 to 2015, the proportion of male adult ever-smokers decreased from 59.4% to 29.9% whereas the female smoking rate remained low (3.2% to 5.3%). AdLC incidence in males and females increased from 9.06 to 23.25 and 7.05 to 24.22 per 100,000 population, respectively. Since 1993, atmospheric visibility in NT improved (from 7.6 to 11.5 km), but deteriorated in ST (from 16.3 to 4.2 km). The annual percent change in AdLC stages IB to IV was 0.3% since 2009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.9%–2.6%) in NT, and 4.6% since 2007 (95% CI: 3.3%–5.8%) in ST; 53% patients with LC had never smoked. Five-year survival rates for never-smokers, those with EGFR wild-type genes, and female patients with AdLC were 12.6% in NT and 4.5% in ST (hazard ratio: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.70–0.90).

Conclusions

In Taiwan, greater than 50% of patients with LC had never smoked. PM2.5 level changes can affect AdLC incidence and patient survival.  相似文献   
5.
6.
Faecal occult blood (FOB) - based screening programmes for colorectal cancer detect about half of all cancers. Little is known about individual health behavioural characteristics which may be associated with screen-detected and interval cancers. Electronic linkage between the UK National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England, cancer registration and other national health records, and a large on-going UK cohort, the Million Women Study, provided data on 628,976 women screened using a guaiac-FOB test (gFOBt) between 2006 and 2012. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic and Cox regression for associations between individual lifestyle factors and risk of colorectal tumours. Among screened women, 766 were diagnosed with screen-detected colorectal cancer registered within 2 years after a positive gFOBt result, and 749 with interval colorectal cancers registered within 2 years after a negative gFOBt result. Current smoking was significantly associated with risk of interval cancer (RR 1.64, 95%CI 1.35–1.99) but not with risk of screen-detected cancer (RR 1.03, 0.84–1.28), and was the only factor of eight examined to show a significant difference in risk between interval and screen-detected cancers (p for difference, 0.003). Compared to screen-detected cancers, interval cancers tended to be sited in the proximal colon or rectum, to be of non-adenocarcinoma morphology, and to be of higher stage.  相似文献   
7.

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory and/or physical fitness health problems in adolescent (ages 18–21) water pipe (WP) smokers (with or without cigarette smoking), cigarette-only smokers, and nonsmokers.

Methods

A comparative four-group study design was used to recruit a non–probability sample of 153 WP smokers only, 103 cigarette smokers only, and 102 cigarette+WP smokers along with 296 nonsmokers. Our hypothesis was that youth who smoked WPs and/or cigarettes would report more respiratory problems and/or poorer physical fitness than those who did not smoke.

Results

The results showed that coughs were significantly associated with smoking in all three of the smoking groups (p < .05). Cigarette-only smokers reported the most adverse outcomes with more wheezing, difficulty breathing, and less ability to exercise without shortness of breath. A dose-response analysis showed similar patterns of adverse health effects for both WP and cigarette smokers. The combined use of both products was not appreciably worse than smoking one product alone. This could be due to cigarette+WP smokers' reporting using less of the respective products when only one product was smoked.

Conclusions

Even during the adolescent years, WP and/or cigarette smoking youth experienced reportable negative health effects.  相似文献   
8.
We provide evidence for the causal relationship between unemployment insurance (UI) and individuals’ smoking behavior using the 1995–2011 Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement data. Our identification relies on the exploitation of the exogenous variations of the maximum UI weekly benefits across states and over years. Instead of focusing on all unemployed people, we concentrate on those who are eligible for UI benefits. We find that when the maximum UI weekly benefit level increases by $100, smoking cessation increases by approximately 2.9 percentage points among the UI-eligible unemployed. The results are robust to various model specifications. We also explore the mechanism and find suggestive evidence that the increase in the maximum UI weekly benefit leads to a decrease in the probability of over-work of the respective spouse. Moreover, the unemployed who are less educated are more responsive to the increasing UI benefits.  相似文献   
9.
Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. However, many women in the United States still report smoking during the third trimester of pregnancy. Smoking rates during pregnancy are particularly high among vulnerable women, such as those who experience mental illness, substance use disorder, homelessness, or interpersonal violence. The Tobacco Control Vaccine is a model based on population-level, evidence-based practices to reduce tobacco use. The four elements of the Tobacco Control Vaccine are access to treatment for tobacco dependence, smoke-free policies, increased tobacco taxes, and media campaigns. The purpose of this commentary is a call to action for health care providers to advocate for increased access to treatment for tobacco dependence; stay up-to-date on innovative, tailored treatment practices; and advocate for comprehensive, smoke-free policies, higher tobacco taxes, and media campaigns to help pregnant women quit smoking and avoid relapse in the postpartum period.  相似文献   
10.
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