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Demographic situation, changes in the role of women in society and growing demand for long-term care (LTC) of older people have challenged the ability to meet the growing LTC needs in most developed countries. In countries where responsibility for LTC is still largely laid on families, it is, however, even more critical and calls for improvements in formal LTC systems. More intensive stakeholder collaboration in LTC policy development, organising and delivery are of primary importance in improving LTC systems. Such collaboration, however, is not always successful; thus, it is critical to understand what makes it effective and efficient. In this paper, we specifically look into multistakeholder collaboration in LTC in Lithuania, one of the fastest ageing countries in the EU, with the demand for LTC services growing fast and exceeding the supply despite rising business and NGO engagement. To determine facilitators of such collaboration, we build on the data obtained through eight focus group discussions with all key stakeholder representatives (LTC policymakers, organisers and service providers [public, private and NGOs], 54 participants in total). Our findings indicate that in addition to national and organisational level facilitators studied in prior research, there are important individual level factors, such as meaningfulness at work, concern and care for others, possibility for personal growth and development, satisfaction with supervision, a sense of belonging and role clarity. On the other hand, our results show that collaboration is constrained by a shortage of human resources, increased workload caused by growing LTC demand, bureaucratic requirements, legal restrictions, lack of awareness of LTC service availability among elder persons, and prevailing social norms and attitudes to institutionalised care. Interestingly, a lack of financial resources is not perceived as a major constraint.  相似文献   
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Despite preventive efforts, HIV exposure is still a concern for public health. The current prevalence is related to unsafe sex, which is based on socio-cognitive variables. Therefore, information about these variables is required to verify whether the past preventive strategies have been effective and improve the future ones. However, there is not updated information to adjust future preventive interventions. For this reason, this study analyzes trends by gender in Spanish young people over the past two decades in perceived susceptibility to HIV, severity perceived to HIV, condom confidence and the intention of condom use, from 1999 to 2020. For this purpose, 11,665 Spanish young people (from 17 to 40 years old) completed the AIDS Prevention Questionnaire in each year. Following our results, in general, the socio-cognitive variables have revealed an unsatisfactory trend: a low perceived susceptibility to HIV and a behavioral intention that have remained stable or even declined slightly over the past years. Particularly, men are more likely to report a riskier level in socio-cognitive variables although, in the latest evaluations, women would decrease condom use intention largely than men. In general, regarding age, young adult would report better levels of condom confidence, but early youth would get higher results in perceived severity, as well as better scores in the latest evaluations of condom use intention. Considering these results, policies should make an effort in HIV prevention programs, and emphasize the attention to attitudinal beliefs and behavioral intention to improve their effectiveness.  相似文献   
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BACKGROUND Metabolic disturbances including changes in serum calcium,magnesium or phosphate(P) influence the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM).We assessed the importance of serum P in elderly patients with type 2 DM vs nondiabetes mellitus(non-DM) in relation to renal function.AIM To determine the association between serum P and serum glucose or insulin resistance in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.METHODS One hundred-ten subjects with a mean age of 69.02±14.3 years were enrolled.Twenty-nine of the participants had type 2 DM(26.4%).The incidence of hypertension,smoking and receiving vitamin D(vitD) derivates were recorded.The participants were classified by both estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) and albuminuria categories according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes 2012 criteria.RESULTS We divided the patients in two groups according to the P cut-off point related to DM value.A comparison between high and low P showed that body mass index30.2±6.3 vs 28.1±4.6(P=0.04),mean glucose 63.6 vs 50.2(P=0.03),uric acid 6.7±1.6 vs 6.09±1.7(P=0.05),mean intact-parathyroid hormone 68.06 vs 47.4(P=0.001),systolic blood pressure 147.4±16.7 vs 140..2±16.1(P=0.02),mean albuminuria 63.2 vs 50.6(P=0.04) and eGFR 45.6±22.1 vs 55.4±21.5(P=0.02)were significantly different.χ~2 tests showed a significant association between high P and DM,hypertension,receiving vitD,smoking and eGFR stage(χ~2=6.3,P=0.01,χ~2=3.9,P=0.03,χ~2=6.9,P=0.009,χ~2=7.04,P=0.01 and χ~2=7.36,P=0.04,respectively).The adjusted model showed that older age,female gender and increased body mass index were significant predictors of type 2 DM when entering the covariates.CONCLUSION High serum P contributes to vascular and metabolic disturbances in elderly patients with type 2 DM and renal impairment.  相似文献   
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目的:探讨微波配合序贯扩肛治疗陈旧性肛裂的临床疗效。方法:选取陈旧性肛裂患者78例,随机分为对照组和治疗组,每组各39例。对照组患者采用后卫内括约肌部分切断治疗,治疗组患者采用微波配合序贯扩肛治疗。结果:观察组患者术中出血量、切口愈合时间均少于对照组(P<0.05),并发症发生率低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:采用微波配合序贯扩肛治疗陈旧性肛裂,临床疗效显著。  相似文献   
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