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多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)是一种内分泌代谢紊乱综合征,临床表现高度异质性。肥胖是PCOS异质性临床表现之一,超过50%的PCOS患者超重或肥胖。肥胖型PCOS主要表现为高雄激素血症、中心型肥胖和糖脂代谢紊乱,非肥胖型PCOS主要表现为黄体生成激素(luteinizing hormone,LH)水平异常升高。尽管肥胖型和非肥胖型PCOS均存在内分泌代谢异常,然而肥胖可加重PCOS糖脂代谢紊乱;肥胖型PCOS还表现脂肪代谢的异常。综述肥胖型PCOS患者的临床特征、性激素水平、糖脂代谢特征,旨在为肥胖型和非肥胖型PCOS患者新的分型诊治提供参考。  相似文献   
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BackgroundOverweight and obesity have been observed in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). This further increases their future risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) as well as the development of other risk factors, such as dyslipidemia.AimsTo compare lipid profiles in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes and lean mass (T1L), Type 1 diabetes and overweight or obese (T1OW/OB), and type 2 diabetes (T2D).MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with T1D or T2D aged 2–19 years using retrospective data collected from 2003 to 2014. Included patients were categorized into lean (BMI < 85th ile and overweight or Obese (BMI ≥ 85th ile). Patients were subcategorized into three age groups: < 10 years, 10–14 years, and 15–19 years.Results7.6% of patients had T2D. Of the patients with T1D, 58.9% were lean, 26.4% were overweight, and 14.7% were obese. Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Non-HDL-C levels were similar across groups. In the 15–19 years group, Triglycerides (TG) levels were significantly higher in T1OW/OB and similar to T2D. High-density lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower in T2D. Weight status significantly correlated with TG and HDL-C levels in T1D and T2D groups.ConclusionsT1OW/OB constitutes a significant proportion of the T1D population. Patients with obesity and T1D, especially if in their late adolescence, have an adverse lipid profile pattern that is comparable to adolescents with T2D. Based on these findings, risk for future CVD in T1OW/OB and T2D may be equivalent.  相似文献   
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Although an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was found, the effect of waist circumference (WC) on BRS is still inconclusive. The contradictory results of previous studies may be related to the heterogeneity and relatively small sample size of the subjects examined. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate whether the influence of increased WC is more detrimental to BRS than BMI. A total of 760 community dwellers were recruited and they were classified into Q1 (n = 189), Q2 (n = 183), Q3 (n = 192) and Q4 (n = 196) groups, based on WC quartiles. Spontaneous BRS was determined by spectral α coefficient method. Valsalva ratio was the longest RR interval after release of Valsalva maneuver divided by the shortest RR interval during maneuver. Cardiac autonomic function was calculated by power spectrum of heart rate in low and high frequency (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz; HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz), and LF/HF ratio in supine position for five minutes. There were significant differences in spontaneous BRS and Valsalva ratio among different WC groups. In multivariate analysis, obesity was inversely associated with spontaneous BRS and Valsalva ratio. However, these inverse relationships became insignificant after further adjustment for WC quartiles. In contrast, Q4 vs. Q1, Q3 vs. Q1 and Q2 vs. Q1 of WC were inversely related to spontaneous BRS. Q4 vs. Q1 and Q3 vs. Q1 of WC were negatively associated with the Valsalva ratio. In conclusion, increased and even high-normal WC had a stronger adverse effect on BRS than BMI, independent of cardio-metabolic risk factors.  相似文献   
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Endoscopic gastroplasty (EG) has been used in clinical practice to treat obesity. This systematic review has the objective of assessing if there is an acceptable level of scientific evidence on the safety and effectiveness of EG. A thorough search strategy was used up to October 2018, including the 2 most common techniques: endoscopic suturing and the primary obesity surgery endolumenal procedure. The quality of the studies was evaluated through the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools for use in Systematic Reviews—“Checklist for Case Series”—and summarized using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. Only 1 randomized controlled trial (moderate GRADE evidence) was found, and the remaining were case reports or small case series (very low GRADE evidence). The literature has low scientific quality. All studies, with 1 exception, are small case series with short follow-up. One of the randomized controlled trials did not meet the primary endpoint for weight loss in both groups (EG × sham) after 1-year follow-up. The case series reported from 16% to 19% total weight loss, but few had more than 6 months of follow-up. Serious adverse events ranged from 2% to 10%. Based on current literature, there is not enough quality scientific evidence regarding long-term weight loss and the procedure’s safety to recommend the use of EG in current clinical practice.  相似文献   
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This paper estimates the causal impact of retirement on the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adults aged 50–69 years old, on the probability of being either overweight or obese and on the probability of being obese. Based on the 2004, 2006 and 2010–2011 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), our identification strategy exploits variation in European Early Retirement Ages (ERAs) and stepwise increases in ERAs in Austria and Italy between 2004 and 2011 to examine an exogenous shock to retirement behavior. Our results show that retirement induced by discontinuous incentives in early retirement schemes causes a 12-percentage point increase in the probability of being obese among men within a two- to four-year period. We find that the impact of retirement is highly non-linear and mostly affects the right-hand side of the male BMI distribution. Additional results show that this pattern is driven by men retiring from strenuous jobs and by those who were already at risk of obesity. In contrast, no significant results are found among women.  相似文献   
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