首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   271752篇
  免费   21959篇
  国内免费   4520篇
耳鼻咽喉   3497篇
儿科学   5901篇
妇产科学   4423篇
基础医学   20900篇
口腔科学   7806篇
临床医学   25565篇
内科学   28136篇
皮肤病学   3211篇
神经病学   12245篇
特种医学   6893篇
外国民族医学   11篇
外科学   25435篇
综合类   44888篇
现状与发展   10篇
一般理论   36篇
预防医学   46748篇
眼科学   2304篇
药学   23053篇
  377篇
中国医学   26706篇
肿瘤学   10086篇
  2023年   4872篇
  2022年   7903篇
  2021年   12176篇
  2020年   12318篇
  2019年   15086篇
  2018年   13412篇
  2017年   10974篇
  2016年   9159篇
  2015年   8892篇
  2014年   18579篇
  2013年   18493篇
  2012年   16850篇
  2011年   17926篇
  2010年   14490篇
  2009年   12545篇
  2008年   11723篇
  2007年   11473篇
  2006年   9756篇
  2005年   7791篇
  2004年   6375篇
  2003年   5585篇
  2002年   4268篇
  2001年   3577篇
  2000年   3158篇
  1999年   2578篇
  1998年   1932篇
  1997年   1729篇
  1996年   1341篇
  1995年   1399篇
  1994年   1240篇
  1993年   1077篇
  1992年   952篇
  1991年   865篇
  1990年   745篇
  1989年   724篇
  1988年   665篇
  1987年   598篇
  1985年   2577篇
  1984年   3357篇
  1983年   2447篇
  1982年   2791篇
  1981年   2298篇
  1980年   1992篇
  1979年   1782篇
  1978年   1436篇
  1977年   1063篇
  1976年   1326篇
  1975年   1033篇
  1974年   873篇
  1973年   791篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
2.
BackgroundPerianal abscesses and anal fistulas are common. The principle of intention-to-treat has not been considered in previous systemic reviews. Thus, the comparison between primary and post-recurrence management was confused, and the recommendation of primary treatment is obscure. The current study aims to identify the optimal initial treatment for pediatric patients.MethodsUsing PRISMA guidelines, studies were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar without any language or study design restriction. The inclusion criteria include original articles or articles with original data, studies of management for a perianal abscess with or without anal fistula, and patient age of <18 years. Patients with local malignancy, Crohn's disease, or other underlying predisposing conditions were excluded. Studies without analyzing recurrence, case series of <5, and irrelevant articles were excluded in the screening stage. Of the 124 screened articles, 14 articles had no full texts or detailed information. Articles written in a language other than English or Mandarin were translated by Google Translation first and confirmed with native speakers. After the eligibility process, studies that compared identified primary managements were then included in the qualitative synthesis.ResultsThirty-one studies involving 2507 pediatric patients met the inclusion criteria. The study design consisted of two prospective case series of 47 patients and retrospective cohort studies. No randomized control trials were identified. Meta-analyses for recurrence after initial management were performed with a random-effects model. Conservative treatment and drainage revealed no difference (Odds ratio [OR], 1.222; 95% Confidential interval [CI]: 0.615–2.427, p = 0.567). Conservative management had a higher risk of recurrence than surgery without statistical significance (OR 0.278, 95% CI: 0.109–0.707, p = 0.007). Compared with incision/drainage, surgery can prevent recurrence remarkably (OR 4.360, 95% CI: 1.761–10.792, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis of different approaches within conservative treatment and operation was not performed for lacking information.ConclusionStrong recommendations cannot be made due to the lack of prospective or randomized controlled studies. However, the current study based on real primary management supports initial surgical intervention for pediatric patients with perianal abscesses and anal fistula to prevent recurrence.Level of evidenceType of study: Systemic review; Evidence level: Level II.  相似文献   
3.
ObjectiveThe use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in lung transplantation has been steadily increasing over the prior decade, with evolving strategies for incorporating support in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings. There is significant practice variability in the use of these techniques, however, and relatively limited data to help establish institutional protocols. The objective of the AATS Clinical Practice Standards Committee (CPSC) expert panel was to review the existing literature and establish recommendations about the use of MCS before, during, and after lung transplantation.MethodsThe AATS CPSC assembled an expert panel of 16 lung transplantation physicians who developed a consensus document of recommendations. The panel was broken into subgroups focused on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative support, and each subgroup performed a focused literature review. These subgroups formulated recommendation statements for each subtopic, which were evaluated by the entire group. The statements were then developed via discussion among the panel and refined until consensus was achieved on each statement.ResultsThe expert panel achieved consensus on 36 recommendations for how and when to use MCS in lung transplantation. These recommendations included the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridging strategy in the preoperative setting, a preference for central veno-arterial ECMO over traditional cardiopulmonary bypass during the transplantation procedure, and the benefit of supporting selected patients with MCS postoperatively.ConclusionsAchieving optimal results in lung transplantation requires the use of a wide range of strategies. MCS provides an important mechanism for helping these critically ill patients through the peritransplantation period. Despite the complex nature of the decision making process in the treatment of these patients, the expert panel was able to achieve consensus on 36 recommendations. These recommendations should provide guidance for professionals involved in the care of end-stage lung disease patients considered for transplantation.  相似文献   
4.
目的:阐述动物智能在军事学的应用及意义。方法:以学术论文、新闻、报纸、智库报告等作为信息源,综合研究国外动物智能军事应用实例及内在关联,描述动物智能在未来战场应用场景。结果:动物智能军事应用主要是动物特殊能力的军事应用和动物智能的仿生武器应用。结论:动物部队、仿生作战部队和动物战术是未来战争不可忽视的重要组成部分,动物智能的隐匿、灵活、多变等特点正逐渐被广泛应用于战场。  相似文献   
5.
目的分析超长住院患者分布及影响因素,探讨减少超长住院日的措施。方法从江苏省某三甲医院病案管理系统中调取2020年1月1日-2020年12月31日134016例出院患者的住院病案首页资料,对住院时间≥30天的1401例超长住院患者的分布特征进行统计描述,采用Logistic回归模型分析超长住院日的影响因素。结果2020年全院平均住院日为7.13天,其中超长住院患者平均住院日为41.85天。超长住院患者以60岁以上年龄组最多(39.61%);出院科室主要分布在血液科(42.18%)、普通外科(11.85%)、骨科(7.49%)等;疾病类别主要为肿瘤(47.32%)、影响健康状态和与保健机构接触的因素(10.56%)、循环系统疾病(7.07%)等;多因素Logistic回归结果显示,男性(OR=1.188)、离院方式为非医嘱离院或其他(OR=2.046)和死亡病例(OR=3.362)是超长住院的危险因素。结论控制超长住院日对平均住院日影响显著,医院应加强重点人群、重点科室和重点病种管理提高诊疗管理水平,缩短平均住院日。  相似文献   
6.
In this paper, we argue that understanding and addressing the problem of poor-quality medical products requires a more interdisciplinary approach than has been evident to date. While prospective studies based on rigorous standardized methodologies are the gold standard for measuring the prevalence of poor-quality medical products and understanding their distribution nationally and internationally, they should be complemented by social science research to unpack the complex set of social, economic, and governance factors that underlie these patterns. In the following sections, we discuss specific examples of prospective quality surveys and of social science studies, highlighting the value of cross-sector partnerships in driving high-quality, policy-relevant research in this area.  相似文献   
7.
BackgroundPolypharmacy is commonly related to poor drug adherence, decreased quality of life and inappropriate prescribing in eldery. Furthermore, this condition also leads to a higher utilization of health services resources, due to the increased risk of adverse drug events, length of stays in hospitals and readmissions rates after discharge.ObjectiveThis Systematic Review aimed to synthesize the current evidence that evaluates pharmaceutical services on polymedicated patients, from an economic perspective.MethodsSystematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies that were published until January 2021. Experimental and observational studies were included in this review, using strict inclusion/exclusion criteria and were assessed for quality using the following tools: RoB and ROBINS-I. Two independent reviewers selected the articles and extracted the data.Results3,662 articles were retrieved from the databases. After the screening, 18 studies were included: 9 experimental and 9 observational studies. The studies reported that the integration of the pharmacist as a member of the healthcare team provides an optimized use of pharmacotherapy to polymedicated patients and contributes to health promotion, providing reduction of spending on medication, reduction of expenses related to emergency care and hospitalizations and other medical expenses. The ECRs made cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analysis, and most of the Non Randomized studies had statistically significant cost savings even considering the expenses of pharmaceutical assistance. Experimental studies reported a cost reduction varying between US$ 193 to US$ 4,966 per patient per year. Furthermore, observational studies estimated a cost reduction of varying from US$ 3 to US$ 2,505 per patient per year. The cost savings are related to decrease in emergency visits and hospitalizations, through pharmacist intervention (medication review and pharmacotherapy follow-up).ConclusionsConsidering the set of studies included, pharmaceutical care services directed to polymedicated patients may cooperate to save financial resources. Most of the interventions showed positive economic trends and also contributed to improving clinical parameters and quality of life. However, due to the majority of the studies having exploratory or qualitative methodology, it is essential to carry out more robust studies, based on full economic evaluation.  相似文献   
8.
目的 探讨医院信息系统中增加住院陪护管理功能的应用效果。方法 基于互联网医院、智慧医院等信息系统,开发信息化住院陪护管理功能,包括流行病学史调查、免费核酸申请、电子陪护证办理、体温监测登记及上报和统计查询。该功能与医院智慧护理链接后全院应用。比较功能应用前和应用后的遵医嘱一患一陪达标率、有效陪护证达标率、体温监测并登记日上报达标率和陪护证使用追溯率,评价护士和管理者疫情防控管理的人均耗时以及对该管理功能的满意度。结果 应用信息化陪护管理功能后,一患一陪达标率、有效陪护证达标率、体温监测并登记日上报达标率和陪护证使用追溯率显著高于应用前(均P<0.05);护士陪护管理人均耗时从(554.13±30.77)s降至(311.67±21.54)s(P<0.05);护士和管理者对该信息化陪护管理功能的满意度显著提高(均P<0.05)。结论 信息化住院陪护管理功能的应用有效提升了疫情期间陪护的管理质量和管理效率,提高了一线护士和管理者的满意度。  相似文献   
9.
【目的】 探讨医学期刊编辑处理生物医学研究伦理问题的方式,为推动确立医学期刊伦理审查规范提供参考。【方法】 通过问卷星向国内医学期刊编辑发放调查问卷,对审稿时和论文出版后处理医学伦理相关问题的方式展开调研。【结果】 共回收问卷230份。调查显示:在审稿阶段,在保护患者隐私方面,英文期刊、中英双语期刊的编辑更注重要求作者提供授权同意相关证明材料;中、英文期刊以及中英双语期刊的编辑对涉及人体试验伦理问题的处理方式都比较规范。但是,对于研究是否获得患者知情同意、动物实验研究是否经过伦理委员会审查、回顾性研究是否需要伦理审查、涉及人的研究是否在临床试验注册中心注册等问题,编辑还需要进一步重视。在论文出版后,编辑发现的医学伦理问题主要是“涉及人的研究未说明是否经过伦理委员会审查”。对论文出版后发现的没有保护患者隐私和没有在临床试验注册中心注册的问题,大部分期刊缺乏相关处理方案。【结论】 编辑应加强对论文知情同意、动物实验伦理、回顾性研究伦理的审查,并审查涉及人的研究是否在临床试验注册中心注册,以推动我国医学期刊的高质量发展。  相似文献   
10.
BackgroundFindings on the usefulness of massage therapy (MT) in postoperative pain management are often inconsistent among studies.ObjectivesThis study’s aim is to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to clarify the effects of massage therapy in the treatment of postoperative pain.MethodsThree databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched for RCTs published from database inception through January 26, 2021. The primary outcome was pain relief. The quality of RCTs was appraised with the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. The random-effect model was used to calculate the effect sizes and standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95 % confidential intervals (CIs) as a summary effect. The heterogeneity test was conducted through I2. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were used to explore the source of heterogeneity. Possible publication bias was assessed using visual inspection of funnel plot asymmetry.ResultsThe analysis included 33 RCTs and showed that MT is effective in reducing postoperative pain (SMD, −1.32; 95 % CI, −2.01 to −0.63; p = 0.0002; I2 = 98.67 %). A similar significant effect was found for both short (immediate assessment) and long terms (assessment performed 4–6 weeks after the MT). Remarkably, we found neither the duration per session nor the dose had an impact on the effect of MT and there seemed to be no difference in the effects of different MT types. In addition, MT seemed to be more effective for adults. Furthermore, MT had better analgesic effects on cesarean section and heart surgery than orthopedic surgery.LimitationsPublication bias is possible due to the inclusion of studies in English only. Additionally, the included studies were extremely heterogeneous. Double-blind research on MT is difficult to implement, and none of the included studies is double-blind. There was some heterogeneity and publication bias in the included studies. In addition, there is no uniform evaluation standard for the operation level of massage practitioners, which may lead to research implementation bias.ConclusionsMT is effective in reducing postoperative pain in both short and long terms.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号