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Background

The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of trauma patients who were injured in a motor vehicle crash and tested positive for alcohol upon hospital arrival versus those who tested negative.

Methods

Study data came from the US National Trauma Data Bank (2007–2010). Any blood alcohol concentration (BAC) found at or above the legal limit (≥0.08?g/dL) was considered “alcohol positive”, and if no alcohol was identified through testing, the patient was considered “alcohol negative”. Patients’ demographics including age >?=?14, race, gender, drug test results, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, injury severity score (ISS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were included in the study. Propensity score and exact pair matching were performed between the groups using baseline characteristics.

Results

From a total of 88,794 patients, 30.9% tested positive and 69.1% tested negative for alcohol. There were significant differences found between the groups regarding age, gender, race, and GCS (all p?<?0.001) as well as a significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% vs. 2.7%, p?<?0.001) and median time to patient expiration (4 vs. 3 days, p?<?0.001) in the alcohol negative group. After running both matching scenarios, there was no evidence of a significant difference seen in the rates of in-hospital mortality or the median time to patient expiration between the alcohol groups in either matched comparison.

Conclusion

Patients who tested positive for alcohol following a traumatic motor vehicle crash showed no significant increase in in-hospital mortality or time to expiration when compared to propensity score and exact matched patients who tested negative for alcohol.  相似文献   
3.

Background

Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are at significant risk of developing postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a widely available inflammatory biomarker which may be of prognostic value in this setting.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting associations between perioperative NLR with postoperative AKI. We searched Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library, without language restriction, from inception to May 2022 for relevant studies. We meta-analysed the reported odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for both elevated preoperative and postoperative NLR with risk of postoperative AKI and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We conducted a meta-regression to explore inter-study statistical heterogeneity.

Results

Twelve studies involving 10,724 participants undergoing cardiac surgery were included, with eight studies being deemed at high risk of bias using PROBAST modelling. We found statistically significant associations between elevated preoperative NLR and postoperative AKI (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.18–1.77), as well as postoperative need for RRT (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.50–3.72). Postoperative NLR measurements were not of prognostic significance.

Conclusions

Elevated preoperative NLR is a reliable inflammatory biomarker for predicting AKI following cardiac surgery.  相似文献   
4.
ObjectiveTo develop a trail running injury screening instrument (TRISI) for utilisation as clinical decision aid in determining if a trail runner is at an increased risk for injury.DesignMultiple methods approach.MethodsThe study utilised five phases 1) identification of injury risk factors 2) determining the relevance of each identified risk factor in a trail running context, 3) creating the content of the Likert scale points from 0 to 4, 4) rescaling the Likert scale points to determine numerical values for the content of each Likert scale point, and 5) determining a weighted score for each injury risk factor that contributes to the overall combined composite score.ResultsOf the 77 identified injury risk factors, 26 were deemed relevant in trail running. The weighted score for each injury risk factor ranged from 2.21 to 5.53 with the highest calculated score being 5.53. The final TRISI includes risk categories of training, running equipment, demographics, previous injury, behavioural, psychological, nutrition, chronic disease, physiological, and biomechanical factors.ConclusionThe developed TRISI aims to assist the clinician during pre-race injury screening or during a training season to identify meaningful areas to target in designing injury risk management strategies and/or continuous health education.  相似文献   
5.
ObjectiveHigh fluctuations in injury-risk during the playing season in soccer have been reported. As seasons are structured in periods with homogenous loads and intensities, we investigated injury-risk over season periods, contrarily to previous studies adopting a month-based approach.DesignCohort study; Level of evidence, 2.MethodsIncidence-rate ratios (IRRs) for match and training injuries were compared across six consecutive seasons of German Bundesliga, divided into six periods each: Pre-season (PS), winter-break (WB), quarter 1–4: (Q1–Q4).ResultsSignificant variations in injury-risk were observed for match and training injuries. IRRs in matches was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.11–1.53) times higher in Q3 and 1.53 (95% CI: 1.31–1.78) higher in Q4 compared to Q1. For training injuries, IRR peaked in Q1 and Q3 followed by a marked decrease in each subsequent quarter. Compared to Q4, IRR was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.40–1.86) times higher during Q3 and 1.78 (95% CI: 1.53–2.07) times higher in Q1. IRR was significantly higher in the competitive season compared to pre-season across match (IRR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.30–3.00) and training (IRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.11–1.43) injuries.ConclusionsThe increased match IRRs later during the season indicate that, in practice, coaches should consider putting even more emphasis on recovery in the last part of the season. Moreover, training injuries seem to indicate a carry-over effect. Further studies need to investigate how training during preparatory phases can be implemented in a way that prevents injuries during the competitive season.  相似文献   
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前后挤压型骶骨Ⅱ区骨折与骶丛神经损伤的关系   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的 探讨前后挤压致骶骨Ⅱ区骨折造成骶丛神经损伤的机制。方法 经甲醛短期(1年内)浸泡固定的国人尸体6具,12侧。解剖保护骶丛神经,制成前后挤压型暴力致骶Ⅱ区骨折模型,定量测量不同骨折移位时骶丛神经被拉长的距离。另外,利用X线片观察骶从神经受压情况。结果 随耻骨联合分离逐渐增大,骶丛神经张应变呈直线相关逐渐加大,以S1,S4为最显著,且可造成神经的刺伤,多见于L5和S1,X线未发现骶丛神经受压表现。结论 前后挤压型暴力致骶骨Ⅱ区骨折神经损伤以牵拉伤为丰,以S1,S4为主,且与骨折移位程度成正相关关系。神经的刺伤,多见于骨折移位较大的L5和S1。  相似文献   
8.
目的 研究未控制出血性休克时不同液体复苏的作用以及,INF—a的变化规律,以期阐明限制性液体复苏降低未控制出血性休克的死亡率和改善预后的相关机制。方法采用改良后的Krausz方法建立重度脾创伤未控制出血性休克大鼠模型。采用随机分组的原则将大鼠分为假处理组、限制输液组、常规输液组、不输液组。观察各组动物的出血量、输液量、存活率、存活时间及各时间点的血压、血细胞比容(Hct)和TNF—a的变化情况。结果①限制输液组的输液量明显少于常规输液组(P〈0.05),出血量也明显少于常规输液组(P〈0.05)。②限制输液组Hct明显高于常规输液组(P〈0.05)。②限制输液组的存活时间比常规输液组及不输液组明显延长(P均〈0.05)。限制输液组在72h内的存活率明显高于常规输液组和不输液组。但低于假处理组(P均〈0.1)。④除假处理组外其余各组在伤后90min和180min血TNF—a水平均较伤前均有明显升高(P均〈0.05);常规输液组,TNF—a水平明显高于限制输液组(P〈0.05)。⑤死亡者TNF—a水平明显高于生存者。结论本研究结果表明,在重度未控制出血条件下,限制性液体复苏可明显降低出血量,提高存活率。未控制性出血休克时的TNF—a水平与预后密切相关,TNF—a高预后不良,而限制性液体复苏时TNF—a水平明显降低。  相似文献   
9.
目的:探讨腹腔脏器损伤的诊治方法。方法:回顾性分析15年间收治的210例腹腔脏器损伤的临床资料。结果:腹腔穿刺阳性率(88.6%)。术前诊断基本准确125例(59.5%)。210例均行手术治疗,治愈190例(90.5%),死亡20例(9.5%)。结论:腹腔多脏器损伤较为常见。腹腔穿刺是可靠的诊断手段,对有剖腹探查指征的病例应积极手术,探查时既要系统全面,防止遗漏,又要避免重复多余的探查。  相似文献   
10.
万庆容 《现代预防医学》2007,34(21):4160-4161
[目的]警示各级政府务必重视和坚持“预防为主”的方针,采取有力措施,加强对犬类的管理,从根本上控制住“狂犬病”疫情。[方法]广泛地开展防治狂犬病健康教育,提高群众的防范意识和自我保护能力;加强部门协作,对犬只实行“管、免、灭、测”的综合性防疫措施;通过多渠道、多途径全面掌握犬伤人员的伤口处理与疫苗注射情况,对经济困难的犬伤者由政府报销疫苗费等措施保障犬伤人员得到及时处理。[结果]2005年犬伤人员伤口处置与疫苗注射率达99.67%;犬只免疫87320只,免疫率占58.21%;农村捕杀野犬、恶犬22408只、城镇限养区捕杀1189只;随机对3只家犬进行了带毒检测,带毒率达66.67%;2005年1~7月发病数10例,8~12月发病2例。[结论]政府重视,部门协作,措施具体,宣传到位,犬伤人员能及时得到正确处置是控制和降低狂犬病发病的关键。  相似文献   
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