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1.

Objective

The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of the state-based reinsurance programs through the section 1332 State Innovation Waivers on health insurance marketplace premiums and insurer participation.

Data Source

2015 to 2022 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Insurance Exchange Compare Datasets.

Study Design

An event study difference-in-differences (DD) model separately for each year of implementation and a synthetic control method (SCM) are used to estimate year-by-year effects following program implementation.

Data Collection/Extraction Methods

Not applicable.

Principal Findings

Reinsurance programs were associated with a decline in premiums in the first year of implementation by 10%–13%, 5%–19%, and 11%–17% for bronze, silver, and gold plans (p < 0.05). There is a trend of sustained declines especially for states that implemented their programs in 2019 and 2020. The SCM analyses suggest some effect heterogeneity across states but also premium declines across most states. There is no evidence that reinsurance programs affected insurer participation.

Conclusion

State-based reinsurance programs have the potential to improve the affordability of health insurance coverage. However, reinsurance programs do not appear to have had an effect on insurer participation, highlighting the need for policy makers to consider complementary strategies to encourage insurer participation.  相似文献   
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目的 观察结肠癌HCT116细胞健脾消癌方的条件培养液对HUVEC细胞管腔形成的影响,从PI3K/Akt生物轴调控角度探讨其作用机制。方法 培养HCT116细胞,细胞设3组:对照组,健脾消癌方组(加入15%健脾消癌方含药血清)及人参皂苷Rg3组;制备HCT116细胞健脾消癌方条件培养液(分组及制备方法见实验方法),用条件培养液干预HUVEC(脐静脉内皮细胞,Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells),Matrigel基质胶法检测HCT116细胞健脾消癌方条件培养液对HUVEC小管形成的影响。随后采用蛋白免疫印迹法(Western blot)检测各组HCT116细胞磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(PI3K)、蛋白激酶B(Akt)、p-Akt、VEGF(血管内皮生长因子,Vascular endothelial growth factor)蛋白表达。最后在结肠癌HCT116荷瘤小鼠中验证健脾消癌方对肿瘤生长速度的影响,并经瘤组织VEGF蛋白表达、CD31免疫组化染色检测肿瘤内血管生成情况。结果 模型组HUVEC细胞管腔形成较空白血清组显著增加(P<0.05);健脾消癌方组及人参皂苷Rg3组较模型组HUVEC细胞管腔形成显著减少(P<0.01)。p-Akt和VEGF蛋白表达水平模型组高于空白血清组(P<0.05),健脾消癌方组及人参皂苷Rg3组显著低于模型组(P<0.01);PI3K、Akt蛋白表达量组间差异无统计学意义。与对照组比较,模型组荷瘤小鼠肿瘤体积显著性增大,瘤组织内VEGF表达、CD31阳性面积显著性增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与模型组比较,健脾消癌方组及人参皂苷Rg3组荷瘤小鼠肿瘤体积显著减小,瘤组织内VEGF表达、CD31阳性面积降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 健脾消癌方可抑制肿瘤的血管生成和生长,其作用机制可能与PI3K/Akt生物轴调控VEGF表达有关。  相似文献   
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Transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) have been a public health challenge for the accessibility, quality and safety of blood transfusion. The present study aimed to consider the prevalence and the trends of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis across the ten years among retrospective blood donors. A retrospective investigation of blood donors’ data covering the period from 22 May 2009 to 22 May 2019 was done. Data was accumulated and analyzed from Blood Transfusion Center records, pertaining to all donors who were screened for various TTIs using respective immunological techniques. Out of the 682,171 screened donors in the 2009–2019 study period, 2470 (0.36 %) were infected with at least one infectious agent. The overall prevalence of HBV, HCV, HTLV-1, HIV and syphilis were 1700 (0.25 %), 184 (0.027 %), 335 (0.05 %), 4 (0.0.05 %) and 247 (0.036 %), respectively. The study showed male dominated donor pool (96.79 %) with higher prevalence (0.34 %) of TTIs compared to female donors (0.02 %) with 3.21 % population. Despite the low prevalence of TTIs in our study, HBV, HCV, syphilis and HIV have remained a big threat to safe blood transfusion in Iran. Strict adherence to selection criteria, algorithm of donor screening, use of highly sensitive and specific methods for detection of TTIs, regular consultation and health education programs, prevention and sanitization strategies to reduce the risk of TTIs are recommended to reduce the risk of TTIs and ensure the safety of blood transfusion for recipient.  相似文献   
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ABSTRACT

The lack of stable housing can impair access and continuity of care for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study investigated the relationship between housing status assessed at multiple time points and several core HIV-related outcomes within the same group of HIV patients experiencing homelessness. Patients with consistently stable housing (CSH) during the year were compared to patients who lacked CSH (non-CSH group). The study outcomes included HIV viral load (VL), CD4 counts, and health care utilization. Multivariable and propensity weighted analyses were used to assess outcomes adjusting for potential group differences. Of 208 patients, 88 (42%) had CSH and 120 (58%) were non-CSH. Patients with CSH had significantly higher proportion of VL suppression and higher mean CD4 counts. The frequency of nurse visits in the CSH group was less than a half of that in the non-CSH group. Patients with CSH were less likely to be admitted to the medical respite facility, and if admitted, their length of stay was about a half of that for the non-CSH group. Our study findings show that patients with CSH had significantly better HIV virologic control and immune status as well as improved health care utilization.  相似文献   
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