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Transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) have been a public health challenge for the accessibility, quality and safety of blood transfusion. The present study aimed to consider the prevalence and the trends of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis across the ten years among retrospective blood donors. A retrospective investigation of blood donors’ data covering the period from 22 May 2009 to 22 May 2019 was done. Data was accumulated and analyzed from Blood Transfusion Center records, pertaining to all donors who were screened for various TTIs using respective immunological techniques. Out of the 682,171 screened donors in the 2009–2019 study period, 2470 (0.36 %) were infected with at least one infectious agent. The overall prevalence of HBV, HCV, HTLV-1, HIV and syphilis were 1700 (0.25 %), 184 (0.027 %), 335 (0.05 %), 4 (0.0.05 %) and 247 (0.036 %), respectively. The study showed male dominated donor pool (96.79 %) with higher prevalence (0.34 %) of TTIs compared to female donors (0.02 %) with 3.21 % population. Despite the low prevalence of TTIs in our study, HBV, HCV, syphilis and HIV have remained a big threat to safe blood transfusion in Iran. Strict adherence to selection criteria, algorithm of donor screening, use of highly sensitive and specific methods for detection of TTIs, regular consultation and health education programs, prevention and sanitization strategies to reduce the risk of TTIs are recommended to reduce the risk of TTIs and ensure the safety of blood transfusion for recipient.  相似文献   
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《Vaccine》2016,34(8):1115-1125
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major health threat to global population. In India, approximately 15–20% of cases of chronic liver diseases are caused by HCV infection. Although, new drug treatments hold great promise for HCV eradication in infected individuals, the treatments are highly expensive. A vaccine for preventing or treating HCV infection would be of great value, particularly in developing countries. Several preclinical trials of virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccine strategies are in progress throughout the world. Previously, using baculovirus based system, we have reported the production of hepatitis C virus-like particles (HCV-LPs) encoding structural proteins for genotype 3a, which is prevalent in India. In the present study, we have generated HCV-LPs using adenovirus based system and tried different immunization strategies by using combinations of both kinds of HCV-LPs with other genotype 3a-based immunogens. HCV-LPs and peptides based ELISAs were used to evaluate antibody responses generated by these combinations. Cell-mediated immune responses were measured by using T-cell proliferation assay and intracellular cytokine staining. We observed that administration of recombinant adenoviruses expressing HCV structural proteins as final booster enhances both antibody as well as T-cell responses. Additionally, reduction of binding of VLP and JFH1 virus to human hepatocellular carcinoma cells demonstrated the presence of neutralizing antibodies in immunized sera. Taken together, our results suggest that the combined regimen of VLP followed by recombinant adenovirus could more effectively inhibit HCV infection, endorsing the novel vaccine strategy.  相似文献   
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A 72-year-old fisherman who was positive for the HCV antibody developed an annular, erythematous, infiltrated lesions on sun-exposed areas. The lesions were diagnosed as annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma both clinically and histologically. Topical corticosteroid and cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen for several months failed to improve the lesions. We then started dapsone, a known anti-oxidant, at 50 mg/day. A month later, the margins of the erythematous lesions faded, and the infiltration gradually decreased. No recurrence has been observed for one year after the start of the therapy. Anti-oxidative therapy appears to be effective for annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma and could be an alternate therapy for refractory granulomatous disease.  相似文献   
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Aim: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) 1b is resistant to standard interferon therapy and has a high risk of developing into hepatocellular carcinoma at the late stage of infection. Therefore, new therapeutic modalities for HCV1b infection must be developed. One approach would be active specific immunotherapy with highly immunogenic HCV1b peptides. Methods: HCV1b-derived 44 synthetic peptides were selected based on their binding scores to HLA-A24. Peptide-specific IgG were measured by ELISA. Peptide-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced in vitro by repeated peptide-stimulation. Results: We identified three novel candidate peptides of HCV1b proteins containing HLA-A24 binding motifs. Each of them had the ability to induce HLA-A24-restricted and peptide-specific CTL activity, and IgGs specific to each of them were detected in the plasma of HCV1b patients. Among these three peptides, a peptide NS5A 2132-2142 was recognized by both cellular and humoral immunities in the majority of blood samples of patients tested. More importantly, the peptide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) showed cytotoxicity against cells cotransfected with NS5A and HLA-A2402 genes in an HLA-restricted manner. This is an additional report to our previous study. Conclusion: These findings may provide a new insight into the development of a peptide-based specific immunotherapy for HCV1b-infected patients.  相似文献   
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Data on the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus among 278 subjects in an institution for the mentally handicapped were analysed by risk factors. A prevalence of 4% was found, higher than blood donors belonging to the same area (1.4%). No differences in prevalence with regard the length of residence, age, sex, degree of retardation or for presence of HBV markers were observed.  相似文献   
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应用NASBA定量检测HCV RNA的研究进展   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
NASBA(nucleic acid sequence-based amplification)即核酸序列依赖性扩增法,是由一对引物介导的、连续均一的、体外特异性核苷酸序列等温扩增的RNA新技术。反应在42℃进行,可在2h内将RNA模板扩增约10^9倍。本文综述NASBA在HCV RNA定量检测中的应用。  相似文献   
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BACKGROUND: Seroreversion, negativation of anti-hepatitis C virus previously positive, is sometimes found in some chronic hepatitis C-sustained responders (SRs) to antiviral therapy. AIMS: To determine the probability of seroreversion in SR treatment with Interferon and Ribavirin, and lymphocyte T helper (CD4+) reactivity to HCV antigens. METHODS: Thirty SR were followed on average for 54.8 months. Anti-HCV was tested by third generation test. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from venous blood and cultured to evaluate CD4+ proliferation in response to 2 microg/ml of eight HCV recombinant antigens from core, NS3, NS4, NS5 regions. RESULTS: Seroreversion was verified in 23% of patients (7/30), appearing at 47.5+/-24.0 months. The probability of anti-HCV loss in this group was 25% at 56 months after ending therapy. In 57% (4/7), anti-HCV returned to positive. These 7 SR patients with seroreversion also showed weaker CD4+ reactivity in 5% of tests (3/56) than the remaining 23 anti-HCV-positive SRs who showed stronger reactivity in 18% of tests (33/184), P=0.036. CONCLUSIONS: One-quarter of the SR showed seroreversion of anti-HCV and weaker CD4+ specific HCV proliferation than those who remained anti-HCV positive. The data suggest that complete viral eradication is a possible and achievable clinical objective.  相似文献   
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