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《Cancer cell》2021,39(9):1214-1226.e10
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Major depressive disorder and other neuropsychiatric disorders are often managed with long-term use of antidepressant medication. Fluoxetine, an SSRI antidepressant, is widely used as a first-line treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. However, fluoxetine has also been shown to increase the risk of metabolic diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Fluoxetine has been shown to increase hepatic lipid accumulation in vivo and in vitro. In addition, fluoxetine has been shown to alter the production of prostaglandins which have also been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of fluoxetine exposure on the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathway and lipid accumulation in a hepatic cell line (H4-II-E-C3 cells). Fluoxetine treatment increased mRNA expression of prostaglandin biosynthetic enzymes (Ptgs1, Ptgs2, and Ptgds), PPAR gamma (Pparg), and PPAR gamma downstream targets involved in fatty acid uptake (Cd36, Fatp2, and Fatp5) as well as production of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14PGJ2 a PPAR gamma ligand. The effects of fluoxetine to induce lipid accumulation were attenuated with a PTGS1 specific inhibitor (SC-560), whereas inhibition of PTGS2 had no effect. Moreover, SC-560 attenuated 15-deoxy-Δ12,14PGJ2 production and expression of PPAR gamma downstream target genes. Taken together these results suggest that fluoxetine-induced lipid abnormalities appear to be mediated via PTGS1 and its downstream product 15d-PGJ2 and suggest a novel therapeutic target to prevent some of the adverse effects of fluoxetine treatment.  相似文献   
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Cantharidin (CTD) is an effective antitumor agent. However, it exhibits significant hepatotoxicity, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study, biochemical and histopathological analyses complemented with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)-based targeted metabolomic analysis of bile acids (BAs) were employed to investigate CTD-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sixteen male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and CTD (1.0 mg/kg) groups. Serum and liver samples were collected after 28 days of intervention. Biochemical, histopathological, and BA metabolomic analyses were performed for all samples. Further, the key biomarkers of CTD-induced hepatotoxicity were identified via multivariate and metabolic pathway analyses. In addition, metabolite–gene–enzyme network and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were used to identify the signaling pathways related to CTD-induced hepatotoxicity. The results revealed significantly increased levels of biochemical indices (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bile acid). Histopathological analysis revealed that the hepatocytes were damaged. Further, 20 endogenous BAs were quantitated via UHPLC-MS/MS, and multivariate and metabolic pathway analyses of BAs revealed that hyocholic acid, cholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid were the key biomarkers of CTD-induced hepatotoxicity. Meanwhile, primary and secondary BA biosynthesis and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were found to be associated with the mechanism by which CTD induced hepatotoxicity in rats. This study provides useful insights for research on the mechanism of CTD-induced hepatotoxicity.  相似文献   
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Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are becoming popular as a means of delivering therapeutics, including those based on nucleic acids and mRNA. The mRNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines are perfect examples to highlight the role played by drug delivery systems in advancing human health. The fundamentals of LNPs for the delivery of nucleic acid- and mRNA-based therapeutics, are well established. Thus, future research on LNPs will focus on addressing the following: expanding the scope of drug delivery to different constituents of the human body, expanding the number of diseases that can be targeted, and studying the change in the pharmacokinetics of LNPs under physiological and pathological conditions. This review article provides an overview of recent advances aimed at expanding the application of LNPs, focusing on the pharmacokinetics and advantages of LNPs. In addition, analytical techniques, library construction and screening, rational design, active targeting, and applicability to gene editing therapy have also been discussed.  相似文献   
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PurposeTo evaluate the midterm outcomes of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) for pediatric renovascular hypertension (RVH).Materials and MethodsThe clinical data of patients who underwent PTRA for RVH in the authors’ hospital from 2012 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Postprocedural blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the affected kidney, restenosis, and complications were closely monitored.ResultsPTRA was performed in a total of 30 children (20 boys and 10 girls), with a mean age of 7.3 years ± 0.7 (range, 40 days to 13.9 years) and a mean weight of 25.0 kg ± 2.3 (range, 3.4–53 kg). The median follow-up period was 26.5 months (range, 1 month to 7.5 years). Technical success was achieved in 26 (86.7%) of the 30 patients. Restenosis developed in 3 patients (10.0%). Only 1 patient underwent stent implantation, and the stent fractured 8 months later, requiring further intervention. There were no other complications. In terms of clinical benefit of blood pressure control after the initial PTRA procedure, 15 patients (50%) were cured and 7 patients (23.3%) showed improvement. There was no significant difference in the etiology, lesion location, and lesion length between patients with clinical benefit and failure (P = .06, P = .202, and P = .06, respectively). GFR of the affected kidney was significantly improved from 19.9 mL/min ± 11.2 to 38.1 mL/min ± 11.9 at the 6-month follow-up after PTRA (P < .001).ConclusionsThe overall results of PTRA for pediatric RVH caused by different etiologies are promising. PTRA not only provided a clinical benefit of blood pressure control in 73.3% of the patients but also significantly improved the function of the affected kidney.  相似文献   
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This study is focussed on micro-encapsulation of essential oils in polylactic acid (PLA) and a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix as well as blends of the same. Microspheres were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique and characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The encapsulation efficiencies and release profiles of the essential oils were studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and head-space solid-phase microextraction GC-MS, respectively. Furthermore, the microspheres were tested for antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains.

The results showed that the microspheres compositions (PLA/PMMA ratio) have significant effect on their characteristics. The process adopted for preparing the microspheres promoted formation of spherical particles at the sizes of 1.5–9.5?µm. The highest encapsulation efficiency of the prepared microspheres was observed in systems consisting of linalool (81.10?±?10.0?wt. % for PLA system and 76.0?±?3.3?wt. % for PMMA system). Confirmation was also made that the release rate of the microspheres was affected by the size of the same.  相似文献   

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BACKGROUND Postoperative liver failure is the most severe complication in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) after major hepatectomy. Current available clinical indexes predicting postoperative residual liver function are not sufficiently accurate.AIM To determine a radiomics model based on preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for predicting liver failure in cirrhotic patients with HCC after major hepatectomy.METHODS For this retrospective study, a radiomics-based model was developed based on preoperative hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance images in 101 patients with HCC between June 2012 and June 2018. Sixty-one radiomic features were extracted from hepatobiliary phase images and selected by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method to construct a radiomics signature. A clinical prediction model, and radiomics-based model incorporating significant clinical indexes and radiomics signature were built using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The integrated radiomics-based model was presented as a radiomics nomogram. The performances of clinical prediction model, radiomics signature, and radiomics-based model for predicting post-operative liver failure were determined using receiver operating characteristics curve, calibration curve, and decision curve analyses.RESULTS Five radiomics features from hepatobiliary phase images were selected to construct the radiomics signature. The clinical prediction model, radiomics signature, and radiomics-based model incorporating indocyanine green clearance rate at 15 min and radiomics signature showed favorable performance for predicting postoperative liver failure(area under the curve: 0.809-0.894). The radiomics-based model achieved the highest performance for predicting liver failure(area under the curve: 0.894; 95%CI: 0.823-0.964). The integrated discrimination improvement analysis showed a significant improvement in the accuracy of liver failure prediction when radiomics signature was added to the clinical prediction model(integrated discrimination improvement = 0.117, P =0.002). The calibration curve and an insignificant Hosmer-Lemeshow test statistic(P = 0.841) demonstrated good calibration of the radiomics-based model. The decision curve analysis showed that patients would benefit more from a radiomics-based prediction model than from a clinical prediction model and radiomics signature alone.CONCLUSION A radiomics-based model of preoperative gadoxetic acid–enhanced MRI can be used to predict liver failure in cirrhotic patients with HCC after major hepatectomy.  相似文献   
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