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Minesapride is a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT4) receptor partial agonist that is expected to show efficacy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation and functional constipation. An open-label study was conducted to evaluate pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of minesapride. Japanese subjects, 12 elderly and 12 young, received a single oral dose of minesapride 40 mg/day in the fasted state. Metabolite profiles were also investigated in this clinical study and in an in vitro study using cryopreserved hepatocytes. Clinical results showed that minesapride was rapidly absorbed (Cmax: 2302.1 ng/mL in the elderly group, 2117.5 ng/mL in the young group), and the plasma concentration then decreased with half-life of approximately 7 h. There were no notable PK differences between elderly and young groups. No serious adverse events (AEs) were observed. The only AE that occurred in 2 or more subjects was diarrhea. Metabolite profiles in plasma and urine were similar between elderly and young groups. No major metabolites exceeded 10% of unchanged minesapride, and results of the in vitro study suggested that there were no human-specific metabolites. From the viewpoints of PK and metabolite profiling, no dose adjustment of minesapride is warranted in elderly population without renal or hepatic impairment.  相似文献   
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目的:研究全麻复合硬膜外在高龄患者腹腔镜直肠癌根治术中的应用效果。方法:选择60岁以上择期行腹腔镜直肠癌根治术患者60例,随机分为G组和GA组,每组各30例。G组患者为单纯全麻组,GA组患者为硬膜外复合全麻组。GA组患者在诱导前取L1~2硬膜外穿刺置管,予0.5%罗哌卡因5 ml,术中每小时追加5~7 ml。两组患者诱导方法相同:即,咪哒唑仑0.04 mg/kg、舒芬太尼0.3~0.4μg/kg、顺阿曲库铵0.15~0.20 mg/kg、依托咪酯0.2~0.3 mg/kg。监测并记录患者血压(BP),心率(HR),心电图(ECG),术中全麻药用量及术后患者苏醒情况。结果:GA组患者气腹后、拔管前BP、HR明显低于G组(P<0.05),且全麻药用量明显低于G组(P<0.05)。结论:全麻复合硬膜外应用于老年腹腔镜直肠癌手术较单纯全麻用药量减少,术中循环更加稳定,是腹腔镜直肠癌根治术比较安全可行的麻醉方法。  相似文献   
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Objective

The advantage of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in older patients requiring dialysis is controversial. We reviewed our vascular access experience in patients ≥70 years of age (older group) compared with younger patients.

Methods

We analyzed consecutive patients who underwent access surgery between 2013 and 2016. Primary success (PS) and primary patency (PP) data were analyzed between the older and younger groups before and after propensity score matching of the patients' characteristics and access composition. PS was defined as the achievement of access function that was amenable to two sessions of successful cannulation without early occlusion or maturation failure requiring revision. PP was defined as the time with uninterrupted patency without intervention.

Results

A total of 594 consecutive accesses were created among 563 patients, of whom 119 were allocated into each group after propensity score matching. In the whole cohort, 193 accesses (32.5%) were performed in older patients. AVFs were performed in 130 (67.4%) older patients and 293 (73.1%) younger patients. Regarding AVFs, the PS rate (83.6% in the older group vs 94.3% in the younger group; P = .001) and the overall PP at 6 and 12 months (73.1% and 57.1%, respectively, in the older group vs 86.7% and 77.7%, respectively, in the younger group; P = .009) were lower in the older group than in the younger group. However, no differences were found in the PS and PP rates for arteriovenous grafts between groups. Regarding the AVF location, the PS rate for forearm AVFs was significantly lower in the older group than in the younger group (76% vs 93%; P < .001); however, the PS rate of the upper arm was not different between the groups (94% vs 97%; P = .425). In the patients with PS, the PP rate of AVFs was similar between the two groups. In the older group with forearm AVFs, the median diameter of the radial artery was larger in the patients with PS than in the patients without PS (2.20 mm with PS vs 2.00 mm without PS; P = .008). The propensity score matching results demonstrated similar trends for the whole cohort, with lower PS (P = .042) and PP rates (P = .023) for AVF in the older group.

Conclusions

The outcomes after AVF were poorer in the older group than in the younger group, which was primarily due to unsatisfactory outcomes in patients with forearm AVFs. Thus, stricter criteria, especially regarding the radial artery diameter, should be applied for forearm AVFs in older patients, and additional research is necessary to delineate the risk factors for primary failure.  相似文献   
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In the work described here, our aim was to determine, in an elderly population, changes in muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of the quadriceps muscles at four time points (0, 5, 10 and 15 min; i.e., T0, T5, T10 and T15, respectively) after changing from a standing to supine position. Twenty-one elderly participants (14 men: 68.1 ± 4.6 y; 8 women: 66.8 ± 4.1 y) were evaluated at four time points. Rectus femoris CSA (RFCSA), MT and EI of the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles were assessed. EI significantly increased from T0 to T5, T10 and T15 (p < 0.001), whereas no differences were observed between T5 and T15 in the rectus femoris (RFEI), vastus intermedius (VIEI) and quadriceps femoris (QFEI). No differences were observed between any time points in the RFCSA and MT of QF muscles. In summary, these results suggest that periods >5 min are not necessary to obtain consistent MT and EI measurements of quadriceps femoris muscles in the elderly population.  相似文献   
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ObjectiveTo investigate the feasibility of transnasal heated humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) with respiratory failure in elderly patients. MethodsA total of 176 elderly patients with AECOPD complicated with respiratory failure who were hospitalized at Peking University Shougang Hospital from December 2016 to January 2022 were enrolled, including 82 patients in an HFNC group and 94 patients in an NPPV group. After treatment, pulse oxygen saturation (SPO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), oxygenation index (OI), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), comfort score, discharge rate, rate of endotracheal intubation, rate of transfer to intensive care unit (ICU), and mortality were compared between the two groups. The independent sample t-test was used for comparison between the two groups. Statistical data are expressed in percentage or number of cases and the χ2 test was used for their comparisons. ResultsThe SPO2 values at 30 min, 1 h, and 6 h were significantly higher in the HFNC group than in the NPPV group (t=-2.049,-2.618, and -3.314, P=0.043, 0.010, and 0.001, respectively). SPO2 before discharge was significantly lower than that of the NPPV group (t=2.162, P=0.033), but OI at each time point and before discharge had no statistical significance (P>0.05). MAP at 6 h was significantly higher in the HFNC group than in the NPPV group (t=-2.209, P=0.029), but within the normal range. HRs at 2 h and 3 h in the HFNC group were significantly higher than those of the NPPV group (t=-2.199 and -2.336, P=0.030 and 0.021, respectively). There were no significant differences in RR, HR, or MAP between the two groups at other time points and before discharge (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in PaCO2 between the two groups (P>0.05). Comfort score in the HFNC group was significantly higher than that of the NPPV group (t=-46.807, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in discharge rate, ICU transfer rate, endotracheal intubation rate, and mortality between the two groups (P>0.05). ConclusionHFNC is as effective as NPPV in treating elderly patients with AECOPD complicated with type Ⅰ or mild type Ⅱ respiratory failure, and HFNC is more comfortable than NPPV.  相似文献   
8.
BackgroundStudies indicate the intrinsic relationship between sarcopenia and diabetes mellitus (DM) pathophysiological mechanisms. Changes in insulin and muscular metabolism are features of diabetic patients and can interact as sarcopenic accelerators. Conversely, sarcopenic patients feature lower glucose tolerance and higher serum insulin levels, predisposing them to DM.ObjectiveTo study the association between sarcopenia and DM in a community-dwelling elderly population of the Amazon region.MethodsCross-sectional study, performed in Belém, Brazil, with 1078 patients aged above 60 years old from the Viver Mais Project (VMP). The definition of sarcopenia was based in the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Calf circumference >31 cm was considered normal, muscle strength was discriminated by BMI and measured with the hand grip test, and gait speed <0.8 m/s configured low performance. DM was diagnosed when reported by the patient or medical form, use of hypoglycemic medications/insulin and in the presence of fasting glucose >126 mg/dl or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >6.5% on two occasions. Other medical and socio-demographic data were extracted from medical forms.ResultsThe frequency of sarcopenia was 9.4%, while DM was present in 36.87% of the patients, and had an increased occurrence in the sarcopenic group. Female sex, advanced age, DM, coronary insufficiency, osteoporosis, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides and functionality were associated with sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, sarcopenia remained strongly associated with DM (OR: 3.208, 95%CI: 1.784–5.769).ConclusionThis study describes strong and independent association between sarcopenia and DM. To further clarify these findings, broader prospective cohorts are necessary.  相似文献   
9.
目的 分析2005 - 2014年我国老年人肺癌发病的时间趋势,为我国肺癌的防控工作提供依据。方法 根据2008 - 2017年《中国肿瘤登记年报》中肺癌的相关数据,分析2005 - 2014年我国老年人肺癌的发病情况,并通过年度变化百分比(annual percentage change,APC)分析其时间变化趋势。结果 2005 - 2014年我国老年人肺癌的发病率呈上升趋势(APC = 0.71%,P<0.05),其中农村老年人肺癌的发病率从198.9/105上升至250.7/105,上升趋势更明显(APC = 2.81%,P<0.05),尤以农村老年女性肺癌发病率的上升趋势最为明显(APC = 5.26%,P<0.05)。2005 - 2014年中国老年人肺癌的发病在60~64岁和65~69岁组呈上升趋势(APC分别为2.83%和2.04%,均P<0.05),而在农村地区,老年人所有年龄组的肺癌发病率都呈明显上升趋势(APC分别为3.49%,3.86%,1.66%,2.31%,3.49%及6.37%,均P<0.05)。结论 2005 - 2014年我国老年人肺癌发病上升趋势明显,以农村老年女性最为突出,国家应针对高危人群及早开展筛查等工作,降低我国老年人肺癌的流行水平。  相似文献   
10.
林娟 《北方药学》2020,(2):30-31
目的:探讨美托洛尔(β1受体阻滞剂)用于老年COPD合并冠心病史治疗的临床疗效。方法:选取2018年6月—2019年6月在我院接受治疗的60岁以上(包括60岁)COPD合并冠心病史老年患者,分为对照组与观察组。对照组给予接受布地奈德福莫特罗粉吸入剂治疗,观察组在使用布地奈德福莫特罗粉吸入剂治疗的基础上口服琥珀酸美托洛尔缓释片治疗,观察对比两组治疗效果。结果:观察组临床治疗效果优于对照组,观察组住院时长以及并发症的发生率低于对照组(P<0.05),差异具有统计学意义。结论:老年COPD合并冠心病史接受美托洛尔治疗,可有效缩短住院时长、用药效果明显、有效提升用药安全性,值得临床推广。  相似文献   
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