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1.
目的:探讨ICU护士执行身体约束缩减行动的障碍因素,为制定身体约束标准化管理方案提供依据。方法:基于理论域框架(TDF)制定访谈提纲,采用目的抽样法对天津市某三级甲等医院的12名ICU护士进行半结构式访谈,按照TDF的相关领域对转录后的资料进行归类,用内容分析法对访谈资料进行分析。结果:ICU护士对身体约束缩减行动理解存在偏差、对约束替代措施内容的不熟悉是其执行身体约束缩减行动的障碍因素之一;身体约束缩减方案评估工具、决策流程的不规范对缩减约束行动的开展造成了一定阻碍;环境因素的限制及对缩减约束结果的担忧,使ICU护士没有足够的信心去执行;科室缺乏支持缩减约束的组织氛围,难以引起护士对执行约束缩减行动的重视,进而削减执行的动力。结合理论域框架将上述因素分别归属为知识、自我效能、环境背景和资源、社会影响、行为规范5个领域。结论:知识、自我效能、环境背景和资源、社会影响及行为规范为ICU护士执行身体约束缩减行动的障碍因素。科室要在明确障碍因素的基础上,加强领导层对执行缩减约束的重视和支持。制定缩减约束评估决策规范化流程以及培训方案,倡导团队协作,创造支持身体约束缩减行动的组织氛围,坚定ICU护士执行缩减约束的信心,促进身体约束缩减行动的持续实施。  相似文献   
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BackgroundDespite high rate of cure in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in clinical trials, outcomes in real-world practice are dismal. We utilized National Cancer Database (NCDB) to explore utilization of multiagent therapy in APL and identify any disparities in treatment in real-world practices.Patients and MethodsNCDB categorizes use of systemic chemotherapy into single agent versus multiagent therapy. Some patients received hormonal therapy, immunotherapy, and unknown therapy; details of these treatments could not be ascertained. We therefore used multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate effects of covariates on the probability of multiagent therapy use in 6678 patients.ResultsCompared to patients >60 years, patients aged 0 to 18 years (hazard ratio[HR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-5.5, P< .0001), 19 to 40 years (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.03-2.54, P= .03), and 41 to 60 years (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9, P< .0001) were more likely to receive multiagent therapy. Patients with Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 0 (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3, P= .001) and CCI of 1 (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9, P= .04) had a higher likelihood of receiving multiagent therapy than patients with CCI ≥ 3. Patients treated at academic cancer centers, compared to those treated at community cancer center (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7, P= .001), comprehensive community cancer center (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8, P< .0001), and integrated network cancer center (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, P= .02) were more likely to be treated with multiagent therapy. Compared to the patients with private insurance, those with Medicaid had increased likelihood (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4, P= .04) whereas uninsured patients had a lower likelihood of receiving multiagent therapy (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8, P= .0005).ConclusionTo our knowledge, this study is the first and the largest scale analysis of treatment practices in APL in real-world practices. Our findings highlight significant disparities in treatment of APL based on age, insurance, and health-system factors.  相似文献   
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Background and aimsThe extent to which dietary patterns influence the risk of abnormal blood lipids throughout young adulthood remains unclear. The aim was to investigate whether early young adulthood dietary patterns predict the risk of abnormal blood lipids during later young adulthood.Methods and resultsWe used data from a long running birth cohort study in Australia. Western dietary pattern rich in meats, processed foods and high-fat dairy products and prudent pattern rich in fruit, vegetables, fish, nuts, whole grains and low-fat dairy products were derived using principal component analysis at the 21-year follow-up from dietary data obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. After 9-years, fasting blood samples of all participants were collected and their total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. Abnormal blood lipids were based on clinical cut-offs for total, LDL and HDL cholesterols, and TG and relative distributions for total:HDL and TG:HDL cholesterols ratios. Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk of each outcome in relation to dietary patterns. Greater adherence to the Western pattern predicted increased risks of high LDL (RR: 1.47; 95%CI: 1.06, 2.03) and TG (1.90; 1.25, 2.86), and high ratios of total:HDL (1.48; 1.00, 2.19) and TG:HDL (1.78; 1.18, 2.70) cholesterols in fully adjusted models. Conversely, a prudent pattern predicted reduced risks of low HDL (0.58; 0.42, 0.78) and high TG (0.66; 0.47, 0.92) and high total:HDL (0.71; 0.51, 0.98) and TG:HDL (0.61; 0.45, 0.84) cholesterols ratios.ConclusionThis is the first prospective study to show greater adherence to unhealthy Western diet predicted increased risks of abnormal blood lipids, whereas healthy prudent diet predicted lower such risks in young adults. Addressing diets in early course may improve cardiovascular health of young adults.  相似文献   
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Interventions that involve key aspects of community organizing, such as quantitative community assessments and organizational partnership support for the community, may promote residents' health. We evaluated the effectiveness of this form of intervention on mortality and its variability across individual-level household equivalized income tertiles, comparing 52,858 residents aged 65 and above in 12 intervention municipalities to 39,006 residents in nine control municipalities in Japan. During 1,166 days of follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for cumulative mortality among men in the intervention municipalities was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.99) compared to those in the control group, with similar results being observed across all income levels. Active utilization of data to evaluate communities and building intersectoral partnerships might lower older male residents’ mortality risk, regardless of their income status.  相似文献   
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ObjectivesTo examine changes in urinary continence for post-acute, Complex Continuing Care hospital patients from time of admission to short-term follow-up, either in hospital or after discharge to long-term care or home with services.DesignRetrospective cohort study of patients in Complex Continuing Care hospitals using clinical data collected with interRAI Minimum Data Set 2.0 and interRAI Resident Assessment Instrument Home Care.Setting and ParticipantsAdults aged 18 years and older, admitted to Complex Continuing Care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 2009 and 2015 (n = 78,913).MethodsA multistate transition model was used to characterize the association between patient characteristics measured at admission and changes in urinary continence state transitions (continent, sometimes continent, and incontinent) between admission and follow-up.ResultsThe cohort included 27,896 patients. At admission, 9583 (34.3%) patients belonged to the continent state, 6441 (23.09%) patients belonged to the sometimes incontinent state, and the remaining 11,872 (42.6%) patients belonged to the incontinent state. For patients who were continent at admission, the majority (62.7%) remained continent at follow-up. However, nearly a quarter (23.9%) transitioned to the sometimes continent state, and an additional 13.4% became incontinent at follow-up. Several factors were associated with continence state transitions, including cognitive impairment, rehabilitation potential, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, and hip fracture.Conclusions and ImplicationsThis study suggests that urinary incontinence is a prevalent problem for Complex Continuing Care hospital patients and multiple factors are associated with continence state transitions. Standardized assessment of urinary incontinence is helpful in this setting to identify patients in need of further assessment and patient-centered intervention and as a quality improvement metric to examine changes in continence from admission to discharge.  相似文献   
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