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《Vaccine》2022,40(7):1001-1009
Vaccination guidelines for dogs and cats indicate that core vaccines (for dogs, rabies, distemper, adenovirus, parvovirus; for cats, feline parvovirus, herpes virus-1, calicivirus) are essential to maintain health, and that non-core vaccines be administered according to a clinician’s assessment of a pet’s risk of exposure and susceptibility to infection. A reliance on individual risk assessment introduces the potential for between-practice inconsistencies in non-core vaccine recommendations. A study was initiated to determine non-core vaccination rates of dogs (Leptospira, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine influenza virus) and cats (feline leukemia virus) in patients current for core vaccines in veterinary practices across the United States. Transactional data for 5,531,866 dogs (1,670 practices) and 1,914,373 cats (1,661 practices) were retrieved from practice management systems for the period November 1, 2016 through January 1, 2020, deidentified and normalized. Non-core vaccination status was evaluated in 2,798,875 dogs and 788,772 cats that were core-vaccine current. Nationally, median clinic vaccination rates for dogs were highest for leptospirosis (70.5%) and B. bronchiseptica (68.7%), and much lower for canine influenza (4.8%). In Lyme-endemic states, the median clinic borreliosis vaccination rate was 51.8%. Feline leukemia median clinic vaccination rates were low for adult cats (34.6%) and for kittens and 1-year old cats (36.8%). Individual clinic vaccination rates ranged from 0 to 100% for leptospirosis, B. bronchiseptica and feline leukemia, 0–96% for canine influenza, and 0–94% for borreliosis. Wide variation in non-core vaccination rates between clinics in similar geographies indicates that factors other than disease risk are driving the use of non-core vaccines in pet dogs and cats, highlighting a need for veterinary practices to address gaps in patient protection. Failure to implement effective non-core vaccination strategies leaves susceptible dogs and cats unprotected against vaccine-preventable diseases.  相似文献   
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Among the chief limitations in achieving early detection and control of animal‐origin influenza of pandemic potential in high‐risk livestock populations is the existing lag time between sample collection and diagnostic result. Advances in molecular diagnostics are permitting deployment of affordable, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific point‐of‐capture assays, providing opportunities for targeted surveillance driving containment strategies with potentially compelling returns on investment. Interrupting disease transmission at source holds promise of disrupting cycles of animal‐origin influenza incursion to endemicity and limiting impact on animal production, food security, and public health. Adoption of new point‐of‐capture diagnostics should be undertaken in the context of promoting robust veterinary services systems and parallel support for operationalizing pre‐authorized plans and communication strategies that will ensure that the full potential of these new platforms is realized.  相似文献   
4.
对2010年1月—2016年7月重庆市中毒救治指定医疗机构收治的2 497例中毒患者进行回顾性分析。结果显示,中毒患者中男性1 230例(49.3%)、女性1 267例(50.7%);分布最多的3个年龄段依次是41~50岁(18.5%)、≤10岁(16.4%)和21~30岁(13.0%);死亡16例,病死率0.6%。中毒类型构成排前三位的是细菌(33.8%)、化学品(32.2%)、植物(14.8%)。中毒预后多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示重度中毒患者结局死亡的可能性是轻度患者的1 102倍。提示重庆市应重点关注农村地区41~50岁人群的细菌、化学品、药物中毒,同时应该加强儿童中毒防控工作。  相似文献   
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A 42‐year‐old man presented with a viral prodrome and tested positive for influenza A. He rapidly deteriorated developing cardiogenic shock, rhabdomyolysis, and acute kidney injury. Patient improved 1 week later with supportive measures including vasopressors, inotropes, and an intraaortic balloon pump. We report this case as it highlights the discordance between echocardiographic ventricular wall thickening as a result of myocardial edema, and electrocardiographic findings at presentation, with a reversal in findings at time of resolution. Additionally, there was some suggestion of a regional pattern to the reduced longitudinal strain.  相似文献   
7.
目的 了解防城港市活禽市场环境禽流感病毒监测情况,为科学评判疫情并采取适当的防控措施提供理论依据。方法 2017年3—4月在全市活禽市场外环境采集笼具擦物、冼禽污水、禽粪、砧板擦物、禽类饮用水等标本,用荧光定量PCR法检测禽流感病毒FluA、H5、H9、H7核酸,并进行统计学分析。结果 采集全市36个活禽市场外环境标本1 855份,阳性393份,阳性率为21.19%,其中H5阳性28份,H7阳性2份,H9阳性198份,H5和H9混合阳性37份,其他亚型(FluA阳性,H5、H7、H9 阴性)128份;不同地区标本阳性率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);城区和乡镇市场采集的标本的阳性率差异无统计学意义。5种类型的标本中,洗禽污水的阳性率最高,其次是砧板擦物, 再次是禽类饮用水和笼具擦物,禽粪的阳性率最低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 防城港市活禽市场环境普遍存在高致病性禽流感病毒的污染,H9亚型是主要的病原体,采取了综合防控措施后,防城港市没有发生人间禽流感疫情。  相似文献   
8.
ABSTRACT

Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed to imidacloprid by gavage once daily for 7 consecutive days at 0, 0.03, 0.34, 3.42, 10.25, and 15.5 mg/kg/day (n = 20 per group; 5 6-week-old males, 5 6-week-old females, 5 9-week-old males, and 5 9-week-old females). The severity and duration of neurobehavioral abnormalities were recorded. Components of the innate and adaptive immune system were assessed with 7 standard functional assays. Temporary neurobehavioral abnormalities were observed in a dose-dependent manner, including muscle tremors, ataxia, and depressed mentation. Based upon mean clinical severity scores, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 3.42 mg/kg/day, and the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) was 10.25 mg/kg/day. The effective dose value for the presence of any neurobehavioral abnormalities in 50% of the test group (ED50) was 4.62 ± 0.98 mg/kg/day. The ED50 for an adjusted score that included both severity and duration of neurobehavioral abnormalities was 11.24 ± 9.33 mg/kg/day. These ED50 values are equivalent to a 1 kg bird ingesting 29 or 70 imidacloprid treated soybean seeds respectively. Immunotoxicity was not documented, possible causes include the assays were insensitive, relevant immune functions were not examined, or imidacloprid is not immunotoxic at this dosing schedule in this species. Neurobehavioral abnormalities were a more sensitive indicator of the sublethal effects of imidacloprid than immunotoxicity.  相似文献   
9.
《Vaccine》2019,37(31):4302-4309
Influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines in pigs generally provide homosubtypic protection but fail to prevent heterologous infections. In this pilot study, the efficacy of an intradermal pDNA vaccine composed of conserved SLA class I and class II T cell epitopes (EPITOPE) against a homosubtypic challenge was compared to an intramuscular commercial inactivated whole virus vaccine (INACT) and a heterologous prime boost approach using both vaccines. Thirty-nine IAV-free, 3-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to one of five groups including NEG-CONTROL (unvaccinated, sham-challenged), INACT-INACT-IAV (vaccinated with FluSure XP® at 4 and 7 weeks, pH1N1 challenged), EPITOPE-INACT-IAV (vaccinated with PigMatrix EDV at 4 and FluSure XP® at 7 weeks, pH1N1 challenged), EPITOPE-EPITOPE-IAV (vaccinated with PigMatrix EDV at 4 and 7 weeks, pH1N1 challenged), and a POS-CONTROL group (unvaccinated, pH1N1 challenged). The challenge was done at 9 weeks of age and pigs were necropsied at day post challenge (dpc) 5. At the time of challenge, all INACT-INACT-IAV pigs, and by dpc 5 all EPITOPE-INACT-IAV pigs were IAV seropositive. IFNγ secreting cells, recognizing vaccine epitope-specific peptides and pH1N1 challenge virus were highest in the EPITOPE-INACT-IAV pigs at challenge. Macroscopic lung lesion scores were reduced in all EPITOPE-INACT-IAV pigs while INACT-INACT-IAV pigs exhibited a bimodal distribution of low and high scores akin to naïve challenged animals. No IAV antigen in lung tissues was detected at necropsy in the EPITOPE-INACT-IAV group, which was similar to naïve unchallenged pigs and different from all other challenged groups. Results suggest that the heterologous prime boost approach using an epitope-driven DNA vaccine followed by an inactivated vaccine was effective against a homosubtypic challenge, and further exploration of this vaccine approach as a practical control measure against heterosubtypic IAV infections is warranted.  相似文献   
10.
《Vaccine》2022,40(43):6255-6270
Swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections in pig populations cause considerable morbidity and economic losses. Frequent reverse zoonotic incursions of human IAV boost reassortment opportunities with authentic porcine and avian-like IAV in swine herds potentially enhancing zoonotic and even pre-pandemic potential. Vaccination using adjuvanted inactivated full virus vaccines is frequently used in attempting control of swIAV infections. Accelerated antigenic drift of swIAV in large swine holdings and interference of maternal antibodies with vaccine in piglets can compromise these efforts. Potentially more efficacious modified live-attenuated vaccines (MLVs) bear the risk of reversion of MLV to virulence. Here we evaluated new MLV candidates based on cold-passaged swIAV or on reassortment-incompetent bat-IAV-swIAV chimeric viruses. Serial cold-passaging of various swIAV subtypes did not yield unambiguously temperature-sensitive mutants although safety studies in mice and pigs suggested some degree of attenuation. Chimeric bat-swIAV expressing the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of an avian-like H1N1, in contrast, proved to be safe in mice and pigs, and a single nasal inoculation induced protective immunity against homologous challenge in pigs. Reassortant-incompetent chimeric bat-swIAV vaccines could aid in reducing the amount of swIAV circulating in pig populations, thereby increasing animal welfare, limiting economic losses and lowering the risk of zoonotic swIAV transmission.  相似文献   
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