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Objectives

To determine: (i) the behaviour change techniques used by a sample of Australian physiotherapists to promote non-treatment physical activity; and (ii) whether those behaviour change techniques are different to the techniques used to encourage adherence to rehabilitation exercises.

Design

Cross-sectional survey.

Method

An online self-report survey was advertised to private practice and outpatient physiotherapists treating patients with musculoskeletal conditions. The use of 50 behaviour change techniques were measured using five-point Likert-type scale questions.

Results

Four-hundred and eighty-six physiotherapists responded to the survey, with 216 surveys fully completed. Most respondents (85.1%) promoted non-treatment physical activity often or all of the time. Respondents frequently used 29 behaviour change techniques to promote non-treatment physical activity or encourage adherence to rehabilitation exercises. A similar number of behaviour change techniques was frequently used to encourage adherence to rehabilitation exercises (n = 28) and promote non-treatment physical activity (n = 26). Half of the behaviour change techniques included in the survey were frequently used for both promoting non-treatment physical activity and encouraging adherence to rehabilitation exercises (n = 25). Graded tasks was the most, and punishment was the least, frequently reported technique used to promote non-treatment physical activity and encourage adherence to rehabilitation exercises.

Conclusions

Respondents reported using similar behaviour change techniques to promote non-treatment physical activity and encourage adherence to rehabilitation exercises. The variability in behaviour change technique use suggests the behaviour the physiotherapist is promoting influences their behaviour change technique choice. Including the frequently-used behaviour change techniques in non-treatment physical activity promotion interventions might improve their efficacy.  相似文献   
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BackgroundA majority of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have disrupted sleep patterns, but there has been limited research examining factors associated with sleep in this population. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare demographic and lifestyle behaviors with sleep quality in youth with ASD. Methods: A total of 49 children (12.44 years; 78% male) with ASD wore the Actigraph GT9X accelerometer over seven days and nights to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB), total sleep duration, and sleep efficiency. Parents reported their child’s weekly amount of screen time and demographic information. Participants were classified according to whether they met sleep criteria for duration and efficiency (8–9 h of sleep duration and ≥85% sleep efficiency). T-tests and ANOVA were used to compare demographic and lifestyle factors between the groups. Results: Participants who meet both sleep duration and efficiency criteria had greater minutes of MVPA per day (113.65 min/day) than participants who only met sleep efficiency criteria (40.27 min/day) and participants who did not meet either sleep criteria (67.5 min/day; p < 0.0001). Additionally, participants who met both sleep criteria had fewer minutes of SB compared to those who only met sleep efficiency criteria (384.79 vs 526.05 min/day; p = 0.02). Conclusions: Youth who had indicators of good sleep quality had greater amounts of MVPA and lower amounts of SB. Studies should further examine the relationship between sleep and health behaviors in youth with ASD to determine causal mechanisms, leading to more effective sleep interventions.  相似文献   
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《Primary Care Diabetes》2019,13(6):568-573
AimsTo compare postprandial glucose responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIE) between obese and lean individuals.MethodsThirty healthy young adult males (15 obese, 15 lean) ate a standardised meal, then performed HIE (4 × 30-s Wingate cycling/4-min rest) or a no-exercise control trial (CON). Blood glucose was measured preprandially and up to 150 min postprandially.ResultsCompared to CON, HIE reduced postprandial glucose concentrations at 120–150 min in obese (p < 0.001) and lean men (p < 0.05), with greater reductions in obese than lean subjects at 120 (−27.0% vs. −8.3%), 135 (−31.9% vs. −15.7%), and 150 min (−21.8% vs. −10.6%). The total glucose area under the curve (AUC) for the testing period was lower with HIE than CON among obese men (p < 0.05), but not lean men (p > 0.05). We found moderate correlations between body mass and postprandial glucose changes (r = 0.39–0.44, p < 0.05), and between glucose AUC and body mass and fat free mass (r = 0.39–0.48, p < 0.05).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that HIE may act as a time-efficient lifestyle intervention strategy for improving obesity-related diabetes risk factors, and might play a role in primary diabetes prevention for the healthy but sedentary population.  相似文献   
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ABSTRACT

Objective

To investigate primary care physician clinical practice patterns, barriers, and education surrounding pediatric physical activity (PA), and to compare practice patterns by discipline.  相似文献   
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The study aimed to assess the effect of exogenous factors such as surgeon posture, surgical instrument length, fatigue after a night shift, exercise and caffeine consumption on the spatial accuracy of neurosurgical manipulations. For the evaluation and simulation of neurosurgical manipulations, a testing device developed by the authors was used. The experimental results were compared using nonparametric analysis (Wilcoxon test) and multivariate analysis, which was performed using mixed models. The results were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. The study included 11 first-year neurosurgery residents who met the inclusion criteria. Hand support in the sitting position (Wilcoxon test p value = 0.0033), caffeine consumption (p = 0.0058) and the length of the microsurgical instrument (p = 0.0032) had statistically significant influences on the spatial accuracy of surgical manipulations (univariate analysis). The spatial accuracy did not significantly depend on the type of standing position (Wilcoxon test p value = 0.2860), whether the surgeon was standing/sitting (p = 0.1029), fatigue following a night shift (p = 0.3281), or physical exertion prior to surgery (p = 0.2845).When conducting the multivariate analysis, the spatial accuracy significantly depended on the test subject (p < 0.0001), the use of support during the test (p = 0.0001), and the length of the microsurgical instrument (p = 0.0397). To increase the spatial accuracy of microsurgical manipulations, hand support and shorter tools should be used. Caffeine consumption in high doses should also be avoided prior to surgery.  相似文献   
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