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《Cancer radiothérapie》2022,26(4):611-615
In order to provide more convenient irradiation regimens for patient comfort, radiation facility organization and health expenses, new hypofractionated protocols have been evaluated. Moderately (dose/fraction: 2.3 to 3 Gy), then ultra (dose/fraction: 5.2 to 6.1 Gy) hypofractionated irradiations were first validated. The current question is: is it possible to go forward using extreme hypofractionated regimens (EHR) based on 1 to 3 fractions. Different irradiation techniques are under investigation. However, brachytherapy remains the smartest way to deliver a high dose in a small volume. We report prospective and retrospective study results which evaluated EHR for breast and prostate brachytherapy. While oncological outcome and toxicity profile appear extremely encouraging for low-risk breast cancer after a 1 to 4 fractions (6.25 to 20 Gy/fraction), the use of a single fraction of 19 to 23 Gy appears debatable for prostate cancer. Brachytherapy represents an emblematic example of EHR but longer follow-up and more mature results are awaited in order to specify the right indications and refine the EQD2 calculation method including new biological and technical factors.  相似文献   
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《Vaccine》2022,40(52):7604-7612
Background and ObjectiveVaccine uptake during pregnancy remains low. Our objectives were to describe 1) development and adaptation of a clinician communication training intervention for maternal immunizations and 2) obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) clinician and staff perspectives on the intervention and fit for the prenatal care context.MethodsDesign of the Motivational Interviewing for Maternal Immunizations (MI4MI) intervention was based on similar communication training interventions for pediatric settings and included presumptive initiation of vaccine recommendations (“You’re due for two vaccines today”) combined with motivational interviewing (MI) for hesitant patients. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with ob-gyn clinicians and staff in five Colorado clinics including settings with obstetric physicians, certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and clinician-trainees. Participants were asked about adapting training to the ob-gyn setting and their implementation experiences. Feedback was incorporated through iterative changes to training components.ResultsInterview and focus group discussion results from participants before (n = 3), during (n = 11) and after (n = 25) implementation guided intervention development and adaptation. Three virtual, asynchronous training components were created: a video and two interactive modules. This virtual format was favored due to challenges attending group meetings; however, participants noted opportunities to practice skills through role-play were lacking. Training modules were adapted to include common challenging vaccine conversations and live-action videos. Participants liked interactive training components and use of adult learning strategies. Some participants initially resisted the presumptive approach but later found it useful after applying it in their practices. Overall, participants reported that MI4MI training fit well with the prenatal context and recommended more inclusion of non-clinician staff.ConclusionsMI4MI training was viewed as relevant and useful for ob-gyn clinicians and staff. Suggestions included making training more interactive, and including more complex scenarios and non-clinician staff.  相似文献   
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This meta-analysis was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for patients with low back pain (LBP). Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane's library, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data were searched until December 2019 to identify studies assessing the effectiveness and safety of EPSW for LBP. The prime outcome is pain intensity measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS). Other outcomes included functional status, quality of life, psychological outcomes measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), as well as the adverse events. Mean differences (MD) were calculated for continuous outcomes, while odd ratios (OR) were calculated for binary outcomes. Revman 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled mean difference in post-treatment pain scores was −2.37 (P <0.0001), indicating that post-treatment pain scores was significantly higher by 2.37 in control group than in ESWT group. At a mean follow-up time of 4–6 weeks, the pooled mean difference in ODI scores was −14.10 (P <0.00001), indicating that the pooled mean difference of post-treatment ODI scores was 14.10 higher in control group than in ESWT group. The use of ESWT is effective in alleviating pain and improving the general functional state for patients with LBP. However, more evidence was needed to verify its safety.  相似文献   
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肠易激综合征是临床常见的功能性胃肠病之一。由于多数患者的症状经过一线药物治疗后仍不能得到较好改善,许多患者为获得更好的治疗效果,转向选择补充与替代疗法进行治疗。然而,由于研究质量和数量的限制,大部分治疗肠易激综合征的补充与替代疗法并未被相关共识和指南所推荐。本文从补充与替代疗法的分类入手,从天然产品、身心治疗、传统医药3个方面就目前国内外常用的补充与替代疗法治疗肠易激综合征的研究进行概述,以期为临床工作者和患者更好地了解和应用提供帮助。  相似文献   
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Whose values matter when considering which environment is healthier for a child whose guardianship is contested? The biological mother from a remote Australian Aboriginal community, who voluntarily relinquished her but has now requested her return? The foster mother who has cared for her in a metropolitan centre in another State of Australia, thousands of kilometres away? The welfare professionals who also live in that city? Or the child herself, who left her birth home and community five years earlier at the age of two? Drawing on a case study of a seven-year old Aboriginal girl, the authors argue that non-Indigenous values trumped Indigenous values without the realisation of key players who were empowered to make such determinations. The article uses Manuel DeLanda's neo-assemblage theory to consider the range of processes that exert themselves to shape place-values and social identity in colonised nations. It will also draw on Erik Erikson's and Lev Vygotsky's theories of psychosocial development to consider competing sets of values that raised feelings of dissonance within the child. Beliefs about what makes a place health-giving are revealed to be complex in colonised nations. Despite policy and legislative changes to better support Aboriginal people and their right to difference, non-Indigenous professionals can continue to be driven by an unrecognised systemic racism. While place-values are not, of course, the only (or perhaps even the most significant) consideration in guardianship determinations, this article will argue they can play a significant and covert role.  相似文献   
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目的 探讨胆囊结石合并胆总管结石(CBDS)术后患者复发情况及危险因素。方法 纳入114例2019年1月~2020年12月在本院行ECRP联合LC治疗的胆囊结石合并CBDS患者,回顾性分析其临床资料,根据所选患者ECRP联合LC术后随访1年内是否复发(REC)将其分为REC组(32例)和未REC组(82例)。回顾性统计胆囊结石合并CBDS术后患者REC情况,比较REC组和未REC组的临床资料,并分析胆囊结石合并CBDS术后患者REC的危险因素。结果 114例胆囊结石合并CBDS术后患者REC32例,发生率28.07%。胆囊结石合并CBDS术后患者REC的危险因素为胆道感染、胆道口括约肌切开、术者经验≤3年、胆道括约肌功能障碍(OR=4.170、4.047、3.568、3.367,P<0.05)。结论 胆囊结石合并CBDS术后患者REC的危险因素与胆道感染、胆道口括约肌切开、术者经验≤3年、胆道括约肌功能障碍密切相关,可据此针对性制定临床治疗及护理干预措施方案,以降低胆囊结石合并CBDS术后患者REC率。  相似文献   
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BackgroundThe goal of this study was to characterize contemporary performance benchmarks and risk factors associated with negative appendectomy (NA) in children with suspected appendicitis.MethodsA multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of children undergoing appendectomy for suspected appendicitis was performed using data from the 2016–2021 NSQIP-Pediatric Appendectomy Targeted Public Use Files. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate the influence of year, age, sex, and WBC count on NA rate, and to generate rate estimates for NA based on different combinations of demographic characteristics and WBC profiles.Results100,322 patients were included from 140 hospitals. The overall NA rate was 2.4%, and rates decreased significantly during the study period (2016: 3.1% vs. 2021: 2.3%, p < 0.001). In adjusted analyses, the highest risk for NA was associated with a normal WBC (<9000/mm3; OR 5.31 [95% CI: 4.87–5.80]), followed by female sex (OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.42–1.68]) and age <5 years (OR 1.64 [95% CI 1.39, 1.94]). Model-estimated risk for NA varied significantly across demographic and WBC strata, with a 14.4-fold range in rates between subgroups with the lowest and highest predicted risk (males 13–17 years with elevated WBC [1.1%] vs. females 3–4 years with normal WBC [15.8%]).ConclusionsContemporary NA rates have decreased over time, however NA risk remains high in children without a leukocytosis, particularly for girls and children <5 years of age. These data provide contemporary performance benchmarks for NA in children with suspected appendicitis and identify high-risk populations where further efforts to mitigate NA risk should be targeted.Level of EvidenceIII.  相似文献   
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