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Radiodermatitis is one of the commonest side effects of radiotherapy. They are usually assessed by semi‐quantitative clinical scores, which are not validated and may be subject to inter‐observer variability. A few previous studies suggested that high‐frequency ultrasonography (HF‐USG) is useful in the assessment of the acute phase of radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients. (a) To monitor skin changes by HF‐USG during the course of radiotherapy due to head and neck cancers, and (b) to determine whether there is any connection between skin sonograms and the skin scoring criteria. This prospective, observational study includes patients diagnosed with head and neck cancers, treated with radiotherapy or concomitant chemoradiation. The final analysis includes six patients. In every patient, the HF‐USG as well as dermatological assessment (target lesion score—TLS and CACE v. 4.0) were performed 4×: before, in the middle, day after, and 3 months after radiotherapy. There were significant differences between non‐irradiated skin thickness and thickness of skin with clinically obvious radiodermatitis (TLS grade 1‐4; P < .0001), as well as between irradiated, unchanged skin thickness (TLS grade 0) and thickness of skin with clinically obvious radiodermatitis (TLS grade 1‐4; P = .0002). There was no significant difference between non‐irradiated and irradiated, unchanged skin thickness (TLS grade 0; P = .9318). In four patients, we demonstrated subepidermal low echogenic band (SLEB). HF‐USG can be useful tool to noninvasive and objective assessment of skin changes during radiotherapy.  相似文献   
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《Clinical neurophysiology》2020,131(1):259-264
ObjectivesFasciculation potentials (FP) are an important consideration in the electrophysiological diagnosis of ALS. Muscle ultrasonography (MUS) has a higher sensitivity in detecting fasciculations than electromyography (EMG), while in some cases, it is unable to detect EMG-detected fasciculations. We aimed to investigate the differences of FP between the muscles with and without MUS-detected fasciculations (MUS-fas).MethodsThirty-one consecutive patients with sporadic ALS were prospectively recruited and in those, both needle EMG and MUS were performed. Analyses of the amplitude, duration, and number of phases of EMG-detected FPs were performed for seven muscles per patient, and results were compared between the muscles with and without MUS-fas in the total cohort.ResultsThe mean amplitude and phase number of FP were significantly lower in patients with EMG-detected FP alone (0.39 ± 0.25 mV and 3.21 ± 0.88, respectively) than in those with both FP and MUS-fas (1.22 ± 0.92 mV and 3.74 ± 1.39, respectively; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.017, Welch’s t-test).ConclusionSmall FP may be undetectable with MUS. MUS cannot replace EMG in the diagnostic approach for ALS.SignificanceClinicians should use a combination of EMG and MUS for the detection and quantitative analysis of fasciculation in ALS.  相似文献   
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Over the last decade, impressive technological advances have occurred in ultrasonography and small‐bowel endoscopy. Nowadays, endoscopic ultrasonography is an essential diagnostic tool and a therapeutic weapon for pancreatobiliary disorders. Capsule endoscopy and device‐assisted enteroscopy have quickly become the reference standard for the diagnosis of small‐bowel luminal diseases, thereby leading to radical changes in diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. We herein provide an up‐to‐date overview of the latest advances in endoscopic ultrasonography and small‐bowel endoscopy, focusing on the emerging paradigms and technological innovations that might improve clinical practice in the near future.  相似文献   
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目的 探讨新生儿肺部超声在早产儿肺部感染评价中的价值。 方法 选取肺部感染早产儿80例为观察组,无肺部感染的早产儿80例为对照组,均给予新生儿肺部超声检查,比较2组肺部超声评分、氧合指数、呼吸指数,比较观察组不同病情、预后患儿肺部超声评分、氧合指数、呼吸指数,分析肺部超声评分和氧合指数、呼吸指数的相关性。 结果 观察组肺部超声评分、氧合指数低于对照组,呼吸指数高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组极危重患儿肺部超声评分、氧合指数低于危重和非危重患儿,呼吸指数高于危重和非危重患儿,危重患儿肺部超声评分、氧合指数低于非危重患儿,呼吸指数高于非危重患儿,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。肺部超声评分与呼吸指数呈负相关(r=-0.455,P<0.05),与氧合指数呈正相关(r=0.470,P<0.05)。观察组死亡患儿肺部超声评分、氧合指数低于存活患儿,呼吸指数高于存活患儿,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。肺部超声评分预测患儿预后的ROC曲线下面积为0.874,高于呼吸指数和氧合指数(P<0.05),其截断值为20分时,敏感度和特异度为88.50%和75.00%。 结论 新生儿肺部超声在早产儿肺部感染评价中有较好的效果,值得临床使用。  相似文献   
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Determining aortic stenosis (AS) severity is clinically important. Calculating aortic valve (AV) area by means of the continuity equation assumes a circular left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). The full impact of this assumption in calculating AV area is unknown. Predictors of noncircular LVOT shape in patients with AS are undefined.In 109 adult patients with AS who underwent multiplanar transesophageal echocardiography, we calculated AV area by means of the standard continuity method and by a modified method involving planimetric LVOT area.We found 54 circular, 37 horizontal-oval, 8 vertical-oval, and 10 irregular LVOTs. Area derived by direct planimetry correlated better with the modified than the standard continuity method (r=0.89 vs r=0.85; both P=0.0001). Valve areas of patients with mild, moderate, or severe AS by planimetry were more often mischaracterized with use of the standard than modified method (29 vs 18; P <0.0001). Horizontal-oval AV area derived by planimetry (1.28 ± 0.55 cm2) was underestimated by the standard method (1.05 ± 0.47 cm2; P=0.001), but not by the modified method. Congenital AV morphology and low cardiac index were the only multivariate predictors of horizontal-oval shape. Low cardiac index was the only predictor of noncircular shape.More than half our patients with AS had noncircular LVOTs. Using the modified method reduces mischaracterizations of AS severity. Congenital AV morphology and low cardiac index predict horizontal-oval or noncircular shape. These data suggest the value of direct LVOT measurement to calculate AS severity in patients who have congenital AV or a low cardiac index.  相似文献   
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