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1.
《Primary Care Diabetes》2019,13(6):568-573
AimsTo compare postprandial glucose responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIE) between obese and lean individuals.MethodsThirty healthy young adult males (15 obese, 15 lean) ate a standardised meal, then performed HIE (4 × 30-s Wingate cycling/4-min rest) or a no-exercise control trial (CON). Blood glucose was measured preprandially and up to 150 min postprandially.ResultsCompared to CON, HIE reduced postprandial glucose concentrations at 120–150 min in obese (p < 0.001) and lean men (p < 0.05), with greater reductions in obese than lean subjects at 120 (−27.0% vs. −8.3%), 135 (−31.9% vs. −15.7%), and 150 min (−21.8% vs. −10.6%). The total glucose area under the curve (AUC) for the testing period was lower with HIE than CON among obese men (p < 0.05), but not lean men (p > 0.05). We found moderate correlations between body mass and postprandial glucose changes (r = 0.39–0.44, p < 0.05), and between glucose AUC and body mass and fat free mass (r = 0.39–0.48, p < 0.05).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that HIE may act as a time-efficient lifestyle intervention strategy for improving obesity-related diabetes risk factors, and might play a role in primary diabetes prevention for the healthy but sedentary population.  相似文献   
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Objective: Longitudinal data on cardiometabolic effects of egg intake during adolescence are lacking. The current analyses aim to evaluate the impact of usual adolescent egg consumption on lipid levels, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance during late adolescence (age 17–20?years).

Methods: Data from 1392 girls, aged 9 to 10 at baseline and followed for 10?years, in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s National Growth and Health Study were used to examine the association between usual egg intake alone and in combination with other healthy lifestyle factors and late adolescent lipid levels, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance, measured as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Diet was assessed using 3-day food records during eight examination cycles. Girls were classified according to usual weekly egg intake, ages 9–17?years:?<1 egg/wk (n?=?361), 1 to <3 eggs/wk (n?=?703), and ≥3 eggs/wk (n?=?328). Analysis of covariance modeling was used to control for confounding by other behavioral and biological risk factors.

Results: Girls with low, moderate, and high egg intakes had adjusted low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of 99.7, 98.8, and 95.5 mg/dL, respectively (p?=?0.0778). In combination with higher intakes of fiber, dairy, or fruits and vegetables, these beneficial effects were stronger and statistically significant. There was no evidence that ≥3 eggs/wk had an adverse effect on lipids, glucose, or HOMA-IR. More active girls who consumed ≥3 eggs/wk had the lowest levels of insulin resistance.

Conclusion: These results suggest that eggs may be included as part of a healthy adolescent diet without adverse effects on glucose, lipid levels, or insulin resistance.  相似文献   

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IntroductionBioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been used to evaluate cellular health and integrity through bioelectrical indicators. In the sporting context, monitoring these indicators can be useful to assess the quality and vitality of cells and body tissues.ObjectiveThe aim of this systematic review was to investigate indicators of cellular health and integrity evaluated by BIA in athletes.MethodsSearches were performed in December 2017 in the Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.ResultsThe searches retrieved 31 articles (30 involving professional athletes and one involving university athletes). In longitudinal studies (n = 15), the bioelectrical parameters directly associated with cellular health and integrity were extracellular water (ECW), phase angle (PA), BIA vector analysis (BIVA), crude reactance data (Xc), resistance (R), and ECW/BCM ratio. Regarding the findings of cross-sectional studies (n = 16), the investigated parameters (ECW, PA, BIVA, Z, BCM, and ECW/BCM) were directly associated with gender, age, sports performance level, modality, and game position.ConclusionsIn the included studies, the cellular health and integrity indicators were: Z, Xc, R, total water, intracellular water, ECW, PA, BIVA, BCM, and ECW/BCM.  相似文献   
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对医院野战医疗队与部队卫生机构联合编组救护所参加大型跨区演练活动进行总结,并梳理联合救护所在演训和保障过程中存在的问题和困难,具有较好的现实参考意义,丰富我军卫勤部队与部队卫勤联合演训的理论。  相似文献   
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Objective: This study investigated the effect of regular swimming exercise according to the duration-intensity on neurocognitive function in a cerebral infarction rat model.

Methods: Forty male Sprague–Dawley 10-week-old rats, weighing 300 ± 50 g, were subjected to photothrombotic cerebral infarction. The remaining 36 rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 9 per group: non-exercise (group A); swimming exercise of short duration-intensity (5 min/day, group B); swimming exercise of moderate duration-intensity (10 min/day, group C); and swimming exercise of long duration-intensity (20 min/day, group D). Exercise was performed five times a week for 4 weeks, beginning the day after cerebral infarction. Neurocognitive function was evaluated with the Morris water maze test. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis examined brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 4 weeks postinfarction.

Results: At 4 weeks postinfarction, escape latency was found to be shorter in group C than in any of groups A, B, or D. Immunohistochemistry revealed the most significant immunoreactivity for BDNF and VEGF in group C. Western blot analysis demonstrated that BDNF and VEGF proteins were markedly expressed in group C.

Conclusions: Regular swimming exercise of moderate duration-intensity may be the most effective exercise protocol for the recovery of neurocognitive function in cerebral infarction rat model.  相似文献   

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Exercise induced dyspnoea (EID) is a common manifestation in children and adolescents. Although EID is commonly attributed to exercise induced bronchoconstriction, several conditions other than asthma can cause EID in otherwise healthy children and adolescents. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) offers a non-invasive comprehensive assessment of the cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses to exercise and is a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool. CPET is a reproducible, non-invasive form of testing that allows for comparison against age- and gender-specific norms. CPET can assess the child’s exercise capacity, determine the limiting factors associated with this, and be used to prescribe individualised interventions. EID can occur due to asthma, exercise induced laryngeal obstruction, breathing pattern disorders, chest wall restriction and cardiovascular pathology among other causes. Differentiating between these varied causes is important if effective therapy is to be initiated and quality of life improved in subjects with EID.  相似文献   
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of the relationships between self-efficacy and (i) functional exercise capacity and (ii) physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and whether self-efficacy assessment type (i.e., COPD symptoms, exercise-task, exercise-barrier, general, falls) and physical activity assessment type (i.e., self-report vs. objective) are moderators. A systematic search of COPD and self-efficacy concepts was conducted using eight databases from inception to 23 January 2019. Studies were included if they provided correlation coefficients of the relationship between self-efficacy and functional exercise capacity or physical activity, were conducted in adults diagnosed with COPD, and were published in English-language journals. A total of 14 correlation coefficients were included in the self-efficacy and functional exercise capacity meta-analysis, and 16 in the self-efficacy and physical activity meta-analysis. Data were screened, reviewed, and extracted independently by two reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by a third reviewer. Stronger self-efficacy was associated with better functional exercise capacity (weighted r?=?0.38, 95%CI [0.25, 0.50]), and greater physical activity (weighted r?=?0.25, 95%CI [0.17, 0.34]). Exercise-task self-efficacy had the strongest relationship to functional exercise capacity (weighted r?=?0.64, 95% CI [0.51, 0.73]). For physical activity, the type of self-efficacy most strongly related was inconclusive. In COPD, self-efficacy has a relationship to functional exercise capacity and physical activity, the strength of which is influenced by the choice of self-efficacy measure. An understanding of these relationships will assist clinicians in selecting the self-efficacy measure most closely related to the outcome of interest.  相似文献   
10.
不同强度运动对大鼠心脏降钙素基因相关肽的影响   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
目的:探讨不同强度运动训练对降钙素基因相关肽(CGRP)在心脏组织中表达的影响及其作用机制。方法:将60只SD大鼠随机分为对照组(C组)、小强度运动组(LE组)、中等强度运动组(ME组)和大强度运动组(HE组),每组15只。建立8周不同强度运动训练动物模型,采用免疫组织化学法和计算机图像分析技术,对大鼠心脏形态结构进行观察,并进行心脏CGRP免疫组化分析。结果:8周小强度运动后,大鼠心脏CGRP表达较对照组变化不明显;8周中等强度运动后,大鼠心脏CGRP表达较对照组显著增加(P<0.05),HE染色、HBFP染色和变色酸2R亮绿染色显示心肌组织形态结构无明显改变,仅心肌纤维有轻度缺血缺氧改变;8周大强度运动后,大鼠心脏CGRP表达较对照组显著减少(P<0.05),HE染色、HBFP染色和变色酸2R亮绿染色显示心肌形态结构发生改变并存在明显的缺血缺氧损伤。结果表明,长期中等强度运动使心脏CGRP表达增加,改善了冠状循环和心肌血液供应,对心肌细胞具有保护作用;长期大强度运动使心脏CGRP对心肌细胞的保护作用减弱,可能是导致心肌发生缺血缺氧性损伤的重要原因之一。  相似文献   
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