首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   103192篇
  免费   10475篇
  国内免费   3097篇
耳鼻咽喉   843篇
儿科学   1195篇
妇产科学   1018篇
基础医学   12173篇
口腔科学   3994篇
临床医学   10862篇
内科学   10596篇
皮肤病学   1319篇
神经病学   6650篇
特种医学   3341篇
外国民族医学   11篇
外科学   7256篇
综合类   15066篇
现状与发展   8篇
一般理论   3篇
预防医学   16785篇
眼科学   1235篇
药学   13818篇
  118篇
中国医学   5770篇
肿瘤学   4703篇
  2024年   300篇
  2023年   1850篇
  2022年   3135篇
  2021年   5149篇
  2020年   4898篇
  2019年   4277篇
  2018年   3850篇
  2017年   4139篇
  2016年   4213篇
  2015年   4146篇
  2014年   7247篇
  2013年   7797篇
  2012年   6910篇
  2011年   7240篇
  2010年   5439篇
  2009年   5065篇
  2008年   4839篇
  2007年   4816篇
  2006年   4080篇
  2005年   3585篇
  2004年   2959篇
  2003年   2713篇
  2002年   2118篇
  2001年   2001篇
  2000年   1568篇
  1999年   1368篇
  1998年   1305篇
  1997年   1185篇
  1996年   1026篇
  1995年   925篇
  1994年   890篇
  1993年   686篇
  1992年   647篇
  1991年   549篇
  1990年   475篇
  1989年   484篇
  1988年   424篇
  1987年   366篇
  1986年   289篇
  1985年   382篇
  1984年   294篇
  1983年   175篇
  1982年   202篇
  1981年   157篇
  1980年   156篇
  1979年   117篇
  1978年   76篇
  1977年   51篇
  1976年   72篇
  1974年   41篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
《Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal》2022,30(11):1572-1588
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common complications of a metabolic syndrome caused by excessive accumulation of fat in the liver. Orthosiphon stamineus also known as Orthosiphon aristatus is a medicinal plant with possible potential beneficial effects on various metabolic disorders. This study aims to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of O. stamineus on hepatic fat accumulation and to further use the computational systems pharmacology approach to identify the pharmacokinetic properties of the bioactive compounds of O. stamineus and to predict their molecular mechanisms against NAFLD. Methods: The effects of an ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves on cytotoxicity, fat accumulation and antioxidant activity were assessed using HepG2 cells. The bioactive compounds of O. stamineus were identified using LC/MS and two bioinformatics databases, namely the Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID) and the Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for the Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (BATMAN-TCM). Pathway enrichment analysis was performed on the predicted targets of the bioactive compounds to provide a systematic overview of the molecular mechanism of action, while molecular docking was used to validate the predicted targets. Results: A total of 27 bioactive compounds corresponding to 50 potential NAFLD-related targets were identified. O. stamineus exerts its anti-NAFLD effects by modulating a variety of cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial β-oxidation, inflammatory signalling pathways, insulin signalling, and fatty acid homeostasis pathways. O. stamineus is significantly targeting many oxidative stress regulators, including JNK, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), NFKB1, PPAR, and AKT1. Molecular docking analysis confirmed the expected high affinity for the potential targets, while the in vitro assay indicates the ability of O. stamineus to inhibit hepatic fat accumulation. Conclusion: Using the computational systems pharmacology approach, the potentially beneficial effect of O. stamineus in NAFLD was indicated through the combination of multiple compounds, multiple targets, and multicellular components.  相似文献   
2.
目的 鉴定与丹参酮合成相关转录因子AP2/ERF家族中SmERF108转录因子,并分析转录因子SmERF108的靶基因。方法 利用生物信息学在线分析平台如NCBI、PFAM等分析SmERF108的序列特征;MEGA-X软件用于构建SmERF108与不同功能转录因子的系统进化树;拟南芥原生质体转化法鉴定SmERF108蛋白的亚细胞定位;通过实时荧光定量PCR(Real-time qPCR)对SmERF108基因在丹参不同器官和组织差异表达进行检测;利用酵母体系对SmERF108的转录激活活性进行探究并用酵母单杂技术确定其靶基因。结果 SmERF108具有典型的AP2/ERF保守结构域,属于ERF-B3亚组,系统进化树和保守基序分析显示SmERF108与丹参中SmERF128、青蒿中AaERF2亲缘关系较近且保守基序分布一致;亚细胞定位显示SmERF108蛋白定位于细胞核;SmERF108基因在周皮中表达最高,且呈现周皮(R1)>韧皮部(R2)>木质部(R3)的规律;酵母自激活验证SmERF108具有转录激活活性,同时酵母单杂交确认其能与关键酶基因SmCPS1启动子结合。结论 鉴定到丹参中一个新转录因子SmERF108,生物信息学分析及差异表达分析预测与丹参酮合成相关,分子互作初步证实靶基因为SmCPS1二萜环化酶。  相似文献   
3.
Intratumor heterogeneity is a main cause of the dismal prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM). Yet, there remains a lack of a uniform assessment of the degree of heterogeneity. With a multiscale approach, we addressed the hypothesis that intratumor heterogeneity exists on different levels comprising traditional regional analyses, but also innovative methods including computer-assisted analysis of tumor morphology combined with epigenomic data. With this aim, 157 biopsies of 37 patients with therapy-naive IDH-wildtype GBM were analyzed regarding the intratumor variance of protein expression of glial marker GFAP, microglia marker Iba1 and proliferation marker Mib1. Hematoxylin and eosin stained slides were evaluated for tumor vascularization. For the estimation of pixel intensity and nuclear profiling, automated analysis was used. Additionally, DNA methylation profiling was conducted separately for the single biopsies. Scoring systems were established to integrate several parameters into one score for the four examined modalities of heterogeneity (regional, cellular, pixel-level and epigenomic). As a result, we could show that heterogeneity was detected in all four modalities. Furthermore, for the regional, cellular and epigenomic level, we confirmed the results of earlier studies stating that a higher degree of heterogeneity is associated with poorer overall survival. To integrate all modalities into one score, we designed a predictor of longer survival, which showed a highly significant separation regarding the OS. In conclusion, multiscale intratumor heterogeneity exists in glioblastoma and its degree has an impact on overall survival. In future studies, the implementation of a broadly feasible heterogeneity index should be considered.  相似文献   
4.
5.
目的 应用可视化方法分析代谢组学在中医药领域的现状及趋势。方法 检索中国知网数据库(CNKI)和Web of Science 核心合集数据库2021年3月15日之前收录的中医药领域代谢组学研究的相关文献,应用CiteSpace软件对纳入的文献进行关键词、作者、研究机构等内容进行可视化分析。结果 共纳入中文文献247篇,英文文献350篇。文献数量在波动中迅速上升。中、英文文献作者合作网络显示,张爱华是中医药领域代谢组学研究发文量最多的作者,并形成了核心研究团队。发文机构显示,中国医学科学院是该领域的重要研究机构,机构间合作紧密。中、英文文献关键词分析显示,研究内容主要集中在核磁共振、代谢标记物、冠心病、质谱技术、代谢通路等相关领域。结论 中医药领域代谢组学研究的热点主要为中医药治疗代谢性疾病的机制研究。研究趋势为卵泡代谢组学研究及中药有效成分的研究。  相似文献   
6.
7.
目的:通过中英文文献了解结直肠癌患者生命质量研究现状及发展趋势。方法:运用CiteSpace对中国知网(CNKI)、万方数据知识服务平台、中国生物医学文献数据库、Web of Science核心数据集、PubMed、Cochrane Library中收录的关于结直肠癌患者生命质量研究的中英文文献进行可视化分析。结果:检索得到中文文献1 285篇,英文文献871篇,中英文文献发文量均呈上升趋势,相关研究关注的重点主要是结直肠癌患者造口、抑郁、免疫、肠道功能、化疗及化疗药物,但机构之间、学者之间合作程度及研究类型等方面存在一定差异。结论:中文文献相关研究起步晚、发展快,但在研究质量与研究深度等方面与英文文献相比还有一定差距;国内学者之间、机构之间应加强合作,关心患者肠道功能、心理状况,提高患者体力活动水平,开展更多高质量研究。  相似文献   
8.
9.
ObjectivesTrauma appears within the discourse of mentally injured people, materializing what we have recently defined as “post traumatic psycholinguistic syndrome” (SPLIT). Translating unspeakability, revival, and dissociation, this clinical entity associates three significant disturbances : traumatic anomia (missing words, reduction of the elocutionary flow, deictic gestures, etc.); linguistic repetitions (of words and phrases, verbal intrusions, echophrasias, etc.); and phrasal and discursive disorganization (incomplete sentences, tense discordance, dysfluence, lack of logical connectors, etc.). What are the causes of these semiological and psycholinguistic expressions? What are their psychological and/or neuropsychological processes? It is time to come up with a new concept intended to go beyond the previous models in order to better identify people suffering from post-traumatic mental disorders, to better organize and evaluate psychotherapeutic care, and also to help practitioners collaborate more effectively on these first two goals. But how to evoke, affirm, or speak out about the consequences of unspeakability? Nothing is more apparently contradictory than wanting to define the language void. How to account for the fractures of psychic trauma in discourse? Nothing is more uncertain than to try to organize the upheavals, the disorders caused by dissociation in language. Finally, how to specify the reiteration of the trauma using words and sentences without this modeling being dissociative or repetitive? Today, thanks to a psycholinguistic reading, essential dimensions of post-traumatic suffering, hitherto hidden, can be clarified. Why exactly does an event cause trauma in the life of a subject at a given moment in her/his existence? Why is a latency phase structured between the traumatic event and the return of reviviscences under the influence of a re-triggering factor? How to differentiate the notion of dissociation as a normal phenomenon from the so-called traumatic dissociation? How to explain the multiple clinical forms of post-traumatic psychological disorders?MethodsFrom Pierre's clinical history, we chronologically detail the structuring and the consequences of the signified reflection that are constitutive of the psychic trauma: the psycholinguistic tools here help to formulate a new etiopathogenic conception of trauma and its psychological consequences. Then, thanks to Jean's testimony, taking up the retrospective meaning of the clinical analysis from chronic repetition syndrome, we discover the phases of tension regarding signified knowledge, up to the network prior to the traumatic confrontation. Finally, illustrated by Karima's disorder, beyond depersonalization, we explain that the analysis of the disturbances of a singular signified network, and also of an attack on its familial and societal bases, testifies to individual and collective subjectivities.ResultsComing from the real world, and therefore also from the body, the stimuli made up of signals picked up by our senses combine to compose an event that can be objectified by its temporal, spatial, biological, and physico-chemical coordinates. These elements combine into a unit, which is then interpreted by the mind, which attributes meaning to this event, which has become subjective reality. But when the subject is not sufficiently prepared to be confronted with this meaning that appears to be in extreme contradiction with her/his previous cardinal networks of significations, it makes “too much sense:” this irreconcilable hyper-signified (that we call the traumatic signified) results in post-traumatic dissociation. In other words, it is an impossibility of concordance of a signified with certain systems of prior significations that constitutes the pathogenesis of the trauma; and a situation runs a greater risk of being traumatic when it contradicts, or, moreso, endangers some or all of the subject's cardinal meanings. This unbearable signified reflexively blocks the capacities of significations immediately pre- and post-trauma, then dissociates the psychic functions to varying degrees and intensities. The traumatic signified, rejected, becomes unattainable: the stimuli that led to its formation find themselves confined to the state of reviviscences, each replication of which attempts to cross the barrier of inconceivability. Limiting sensory compounds to their raw states without the possibility of representational integration, associative pathways remain blocked. The signifier is referred to a hypo-signifier confined to the infra-linguistic by its confusion with the referent, the “objective and material” components of the traumatic event. Dissociation is therefore only a symptomatic reaction, secondary to the trauma, which it reinforces once again by limiting any possibility of representing the trauma. This dissociation does not involve forgetting the traumatic signified but “protects” the adjacent networks of meanings from it as much as it “keeps” this hypersignified intact, therefore ultimately “protecting” it as well. The traumatic signified persists somewhere, and even ends up being found everywhere: when the networks of meanings turn out to be globally disturbed, the tightest links remain those of the traumatic hypersignified that ultimately governs all the networks of meanings.DiscussionOur insufficient knowledge prevents us from precisely qualifying the architecture of the signified idiosyncratic networks and their evolutionary capacities; we cannot predict, beforehand, the reaction of an individual confronted with a potentially psychotraumatic situation. For most clinical situations, we affirm that the psychological trauma occurs in a psychically healthy subject, that is, not suffering from any psychiatric illness or any obvious psychopathological conflict. Psychotherapy will make it possible to discover the signified, sometimes ancient, origins of a trauma occurring in a singular subject. How was this subjectivity constructed? Beyond individual subjectivity, the intensity of certain confrontations such as serious attacks or macrosocial catastrophes such as genocide, would seem to lead to psychological wounds in any individual, even at the scale of a population. While, throughout existence, each subject produces a system of significations in connection with a unique psychic construction, the latter persists – resulting from, and often remaining overseen by, the community essence of a base of signifying networks, which we call “societal subjectivity.” Here, the psychological trauma can correspond to an individual and “common” injury as a failure of a sharing, or of ancestral beliefs anchored in the collective memory, defining the culture. By the collapse of acquired certainties, the cognitive patterns transmitted by education, language, and everything that establishes one's belonging to a society, trauma shakes the networks of individual and group meanings. Horror has a higher traumatogenic risk, because it defeats the fundamentals of humankind, the foundations of a signified network common to a culture, or even to all cultures, to the human condition. This is the case with murder, rape, torture, wars, genocides. Testifying to an instinct for survival stemming from the biological foundations of every living being, the impossibility of “living death” appears to be anchored in our networks of meanings and is manifested by indescribability, traumatic as such: being deserted by the language collides with the condition of speaking. And yet, it remains possible to say something about it... As a path of progressive desocialization, the occasional loss of the community of language, followed by its lasting traumatic ravages, can be appeased by the reestablishment of a speech link, either within the mind of the subject alone, or promoted by the exchange with others, in a psychotherapeutic setting, for example.ConclusionWhere theoretical discourses have sometimes proved divisive, going beyond the symptoms of indescribability and dissociation, psychodynamic practice today offers to unite. Thanks to psycholinguistic listening, phenomena that have never been explained take on meaning: the singularity of traumatic perception, the chronology of disorders including the latency phase, factors that trigger reviviscences, and the diversity of chronic clinical forms. All these post-traumatic symptoms are consequential to a linguistic wound, a difficulty in accessing meaning, the undermining of two dimensions characterizing and constructing the human being. As much as it integrates extralinguistic determinants, if the traumatic signified is undoubtedly not only speech, language appears the optimal way to identify it as such, while in the same movement appeasing it. The traumatic hypersignified is discovered through clinical analysis and psychotherapy, through deferred action, through the attribution of meaning, through the retrospective reconstruction of an unstable “real,” through a changing narration eternally distancing itself from reviviscences. But what precisely are the mechanisms of effective therapies ? What are the intersubjective links called for in the discussion between patient and practitioner? Could the operations that we call “psychotherapy” be made up of mobilizations of the networks of meanings by speech acts?  相似文献   
10.
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号