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1.
BackgroundThe goal of this study was to characterize contemporary performance benchmarks and risk factors associated with negative appendectomy (NA) in children with suspected appendicitis.MethodsA multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of children undergoing appendectomy for suspected appendicitis was performed using data from the 2016–2021 NSQIP-Pediatric Appendectomy Targeted Public Use Files. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate the influence of year, age, sex, and WBC count on NA rate, and to generate rate estimates for NA based on different combinations of demographic characteristics and WBC profiles.Results100,322 patients were included from 140 hospitals. The overall NA rate was 2.4%, and rates decreased significantly during the study period (2016: 3.1% vs. 2021: 2.3%, p < 0.001). In adjusted analyses, the highest risk for NA was associated with a normal WBC (<9000/mm3; OR 5.31 [95% CI: 4.87–5.80]), followed by female sex (OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.42–1.68]) and age <5 years (OR 1.64 [95% CI 1.39, 1.94]). Model-estimated risk for NA varied significantly across demographic and WBC strata, with a 14.4-fold range in rates between subgroups with the lowest and highest predicted risk (males 13–17 years with elevated WBC [1.1%] vs. females 3–4 years with normal WBC [15.8%]).ConclusionsContemporary NA rates have decreased over time, however NA risk remains high in children without a leukocytosis, particularly for girls and children <5 years of age. These data provide contemporary performance benchmarks for NA in children with suspected appendicitis and identify high-risk populations where further efforts to mitigate NA risk should be targeted.Level of EvidenceIII.  相似文献   
2.
BackgroundVitamin D is essential in the host defense against tuberculosis (TB). Suboptimal vitamin D status is common in the hemodialysis population. Hemodialysis patients have an increased risk compared to the general population latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and LTBI in this population remains unclear.Materials and methodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study between March and May 2017. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) through QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube was used to assess LTBI. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD) levels were measured by Elecsys Vitamin D Total assay. Suboptimal vitamin D levels included vitamin D insufficiency 20–29 ng/mg and vitamin D deficiency <20 ng/mL. Predictors for LTBI were analyzed.ResultsA total of 287 participants were enrolled. The suboptimal vitamin D level was 31.4% (90/287), which including the vitamin D deficiency was 13.9% (40/287). A total of 49.1% (141/287) people received nutritional vitamin D supplementation. The prevalence of IGRA positivity in this study was 25.1% (72/287). There was no significant difference in vitamin D concentrations or the proportion of vitamin D supplementation among the IGRA-positive and IGRA-negative groups (p = 0.789 and 0.496, respectively). In multivariate analysis, age >65 years old (odds ratio (OR), 1.89; 95% CI, 1.08–3.31; p = 0.026) and TB history (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.38–8.91; p = 0.008) were independent predictors of IGRA positivity.ConclusionThis is the first study to report that vitamin D deficiency was not associated with IGRA positivity in a hemodialysis population. Aging and TB history were both independent predictors for LTBI.  相似文献   
3.
IntroductionThe Modena bleeding score is a categorical rating scale that allows the assessment of the surgical field in relation to bleeding during endoscopic surgery. It has recently been presented and validated in the field of endoscopic ear surgery by the present authors. The Modena bleeding score provides five grades for rating the surgical field during endoscopic procedures (from grade 1 ? no bleeding to grade 5 ? bleeding that prevents every surgical procedure except those dedicated to bleeding control).ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to validate the Modena bleeding score in the setting of endoscopic sinus surgery.MethodsFifteen three-minute videos of endoscopic sinus surgery procedures (each containing three bleeding situations) were evaluated by 15 specialists, using the Modena bleeding score. Intra and inter-rater reliability were assessed, and the clinical validity of the Modena bleeding score was calculated using a referent standard.ResultsThe data analysis showed an intra-rater reliability ranging from 0.6336 to 0.861. The inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.676 to 0.844. The clinical validity was α = 0.70; confidence limits: 0.64 ? 0.75, corresponding to substantial agreement.ConclusionThe Modena bleeding score is an effective method to score bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery. Its application in future research could facilitate the performance and efficacy assessment of surgical techniques, materials or devices aimed to bleeding control during endoscopic sinus surgery.  相似文献   
4.
ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to reduce errors in a pathologic specimen with the help of a protocol systematizing the pathology specimen management process in the operating room.Materials and methodThis quasi-experimental study was carried out in the operating room unit of a research and training hospital. A protocol systematizing the process of specimen management in secure surgical pathology and prepared in light of the current literature was used as an intervention, and the effectiveness of the protocol was tested.ResultsIt was determined that the rate of adverse events decreased from .3226% (68 of 21,078) to .032% (6 of 18,706) after the protocol systematizing the surgical pathology specimen management process prepared by the researchers, and the protocol was found to be effective by 90% (P = .03).ConclusionBased on the data obtained in this study, we recommend the use of a pathologic specimen management protocol in the operating room.  相似文献   
5.
《Survey of ophthalmology》2023,68(5):940-956
Congenital aniridia is a panocular disorder that is typically characterized by iris hypoplasia and aniridia-associated keratopathy (AAK). AAK results in the progressive loss of corneal transparency and thereby loss of vision. Currently, there is no approved therapy to delay or prevent its progression, and clinical management is challenging because of phenotypic variability and high risk of complications after interventions; however, new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of AAK may help improve its management. Here, we review the current understanding about the pathogenesis and management of AAK. We highlight the biological mechanisms involved in AAK development with the aim to develop future treatment options, including surgical, pharmacological, cell therapies, and gene therapies.  相似文献   
6.
Background/PurposeA small number of Hirschsprung disease (HD) patients develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like symptoms after pullthrough surgery. The etiology and pathophysiology of Hirschsprung-associated IBD (HD-IBD) remains unknown. This study aims to further characterize HD-IBD, to identify potential risk factors and to evaluate response to treatment in a large group of patients.MethodsRetrospective study of patients diagnosed with IBD after pullthrough surgery between 2000 and 2021 at 17 institutions. Data regarding clinical presentation and course of HD and IBD were reviewed. Effectiveness of medical therapy for IBD was recorded using a Likert scale.ResultsThere were 55 patients (78% male). 50% (n = 28) had long segment disease. Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) was reported in 68% (n = 36). Ten patients (18%) had Trisomy 21. IBD was diagnosed after age 5 in 63% (n = 34). IBD presentation consisted of colonic or small bowel inflammation resembling IBD in 69% (n = 38), unexplained or persistent fistula in 18% (n = 10) and unexplained HAEC >5 years old or unresponsive to standard treatment in 13% (n = 7). Biological agents were the most effective (80%) medications. A third of patients required a surgical procedure for IBD.ConclusionMore than half of the patients were diagnosed with HD-IBD after 5 years old. Long segment disease, HAEC after pull through operation and trisomy 21 may represent risk factors for this condition. Investigation for possible IBD should be considered in children with unexplained fistulae, HAEC beyond the age of 5 or unresponsive to standard therapy, and symptoms suggestive of IBD. Biological agents were the most effective medical treatment.Level of EvidenceLevel 4  相似文献   
7.
This study is focussed on micro-encapsulation of essential oils in polylactic acid (PLA) and a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix as well as blends of the same. Microspheres were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique and characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The encapsulation efficiencies and release profiles of the essential oils were studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and head-space solid-phase microextraction GC-MS, respectively. Furthermore, the microspheres were tested for antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains.

The results showed that the microspheres compositions (PLA/PMMA ratio) have significant effect on their characteristics. The process adopted for preparing the microspheres promoted formation of spherical particles at the sizes of 1.5–9.5?µm. The highest encapsulation efficiency of the prepared microspheres was observed in systems consisting of linalool (81.10?±?10.0?wt. % for PLA system and 76.0?±?3.3?wt. % for PMMA system). Confirmation was also made that the release rate of the microspheres was affected by the size of the same.  相似文献   

8.
Pregnancy can be complicated with different surgical emergencies which may potentially endanger the mother as well as foetus. In the modern era of advanced diagnostics and treatments, neither of them in response to a surgical emergency in a pregnant woman should be delayed. Appropriate early intervention is essential to decrease the morbidity and mortality. Following article encompasses common surgical emergencies that can arise in a pregnant woman and tries to suggest the approach that may be taken to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality.  相似文献   
9.
目的比较手术夹闭和介入栓塞治疗颅内未破裂动脉瘤的安全性和有效性。方法计算机检索1990至2018年颅内未破裂动脉瘤的所有临床对照研究。两名研究员分别纳入研究、提取数据、质量评价并应用Rev Man5. 0软件进行数据处理。结果最终纳入21篇文献,病例数109114例。Meta分析结果提示:手术夹闭组动脉瘤闭塞率为88. 2%,平均住院时间7. 7天,均高于介入栓塞组的65. 3%和4. 1天,P 0. 05。介入组患者的短期死亡率和致残率分别为0. 61%和2. 1%,均低于手术组的1. 27%和4. 7%,P 0. 05。介入组患者的1年期死亡率和致残率(2. 5%、2. 5%)均与手术组(2. 2%、1. 8%)无明显差异,P 0. 05。漏斗图未发现发表偏倚。敏感性分析结果一致。结论介入栓塞相比于手术夹闭可缩短患者的住院时间,降低患者的短期不良预后发生率。但是动脉瘤的闭塞率较低,1年期预后与手术夹闭无明显差异。据此推测手术夹闭患者的长期预后可能要好于介入栓塞,手术夹闭更适合于年轻患者。  相似文献   
10.
A combination of various therapeutic approaches has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer treatment. A safe and competent nano-delivery system is thus in urgent demand to facilitate the simultaneous transport of various therapeutic agents to cancer cells and a tumor region to achieve synergistic effect. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSNs) were fabricated herein as potential candidates for drug delivery. Serving as gatekeepers, GNPs (5 nm in diameter) were attached onto the amino-functionalized MSNs (denoted as NMSNs) via a relatively weak gold–nitrogen bonding. The resulting nanohybrids (denoted as GCMSNs) were uptaken by cells, and the detachment of GNPs and subsequent intracellular drug release from NMSNs were achieved by competitive binding of intracellular glutathione to GNPs. In addition to the function of gatekeeping, GNPs also play another role as the oxidative stress elicitor. Our in vitro studies revealed that GCMSNs induced higher oxidative stress in lung cancer cells (A549) than in normal cells (3T3-L1). This growth inhibitory effect found in the cancer cells was likely induced by mitochondria dysfunction originated from the GCMSN-induced, oxidative stress-triggered mitochondria-mediated autophagy. The redox-responsive nanohybrids were further loaded with camptothecin and the intensified synergistic therapeutic effects were observed associated with combined chemotherapy and oxidative stress strategy. The results clearly demonstrate that such unique nanohybrids hold great promise for selective and effective cancer treatments.  相似文献   
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