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Background

It has been reported that particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) while metabolic syndrome is also an important risk factor for CVD. However, few studies have investigated the epidemiological association between PM and metabolic syndrome.

Objective

To investigate the association between one-year exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5?μm (PM2.5) and the risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults without CVD.

Methods

Exposure to PM2.5 was assessed using a Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Metabolic syndrome was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Andersen and Gill model with time-varying covariates, considering recurrent events, was used to investigate the association between one-year average PM2.5 and the risk of incident metabolic syndrome in 119,998 adults from the national health screening cohort provided by Korea National Health Insurance from 2009 to 2013.

Results

Higher risk of metabolic syndrome, waist-based obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, and hyperglycemia were significantly associated with a 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.070, 1.510, 1.499, 1.468, 1.627 and 1.380, respectively]. In addition, the risk of metabolic syndrome associated with PM2.5 exposure was significant in the consistently obese group (obese at baseline and endpoint).

Conclusion

Exposure to one-year average PM2.5 is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in adults without CVD. These associations are particularly prominent in the consistently obese group (obese at baseline and endpoint). Our findings indicate that PM2.5 affects the onset of MS and its components which may lead to increase the risk of CVD.  相似文献   
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《Neuro-Chirurgie》2022,68(3):262-266
BackgroundThe prognosis for patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is dismal, and the question of repeat surgery at time of recurrence is common. Re-operation in the management of these patients remains controversial, as there is no randomized evidence of benefit. An all-inclusive pragmatic care trial is needed to evaluate the role of repeat resection.Methods3rGBM is a multicenter, pragmatic, prospective, parallel-group randomized care trial, with 1:1 allocation to repeat resection or standard care with no repeat resection. To test the hypothesis that repeat resection can improve overall survival by at least 3 months (from 6 to 9 months), 250 adult patients with prior resection of pathology-proven glioblastoma for whom the attending surgeon believes repeat resection may improve quality survival will be enrolled. A surrogate measure of quality of life, the number of days outside of hospital/nursing/palliative care facility, will also be compared. Centers are invited to participate without financial compensation and without contracts. Clinicians may apply to local authorities to approve an investigator-led in-house trial, using a common protocol, web-based randomization platform, and simple standardized case report forms.DiscussionThe 3rGBM trial is a modern transparent care research framework with no additional risks, tests, or visits other than what patients would encounter in normal care. The burden of proof remains on repeat surgical management of recurrent GBM, because this management has yet to be shown beneficial. The trial is designed to help patients and surgeons manage the uncertainty regarding optimal care.Clinical Trial Registrationhttp://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04838782.  相似文献   
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目的探讨后外侧结构重建对后外侧入路人工股骨头置换术术后早期关节脱位的影响。方法选取2016年9月至2017年8月于我院行后外侧入路初次人工股骨头置换术的股骨颈骨折患者60例,根据术中是否修补关节囊及外旋肌群分为重建组(33例:舌形切开关节囊,术中将关节囊及外旋肌群原位缝合在大转子后方及臀中肌肌腱附着处)和对照组(27例:切除关节囊后,术中未进行外旋肌群修复重建)。比较两组的手术情况及术后近期关节功能情况。结果重建组的手术时间为(45.0±15.3) min,长于对照组的(35.0±12.4) min (P <0.05)。重建组术腔引流量为(200.0±80.0) m L,少于对照组的(420.0±120.6) m L (P <0.05)。重建组的早期脱位率为0.000%(0例),与对照组的7.407%(2例)比较无统计学差异(P>0.05)。重建组术后Harris评分为(92.0±3.4)分,高于对照组的(88.2±5.0)分(P <0.05)。结论在后外侧入路人工股骨头置换过程中行后外侧结构重建能够有效减少术腔引流量,提高髋关节Harris评分,对维持髋关节软组织平衡具有重要意义。  相似文献   
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The aim of this study is to review the literature to find out the exact etiology of anastomotic cancers of colon post resection and differentiate them between a recurrence, second primary, and metastatic disease (local manifestation of systemic disease). Web-based literature search was done, and datas collected. We searched PubMed for papers using the keywords colon cancer recurrence, anastomotic recurrence, and recurrent colon carcinoma. We also searched for systematic review in the same topic. In addition, we used our personal referrence archive. Anastomotic recurrences of colon are postulated to arise due to inadequate margins, tumor implantation by exfoliated cells, altered biological properties of bowel anastomosis, and missed synchronous lesions. Some tumors are unique with repeated recurrence after repeated resection. Duration after primary surgery plays a major role in differentiating recurrent and second primary lesions. Repeated recurrences after repeated resections have to be considered a manifestation of systemic disease or metastatic disease due to the virulence of the disease. A detailed analysis and study of patients with colonic anastomotic lesion are required to differentiate it between a recurrent, a second primary lesion, and a metastatic disease (local manifestation of a systemic disease). The nomenclature is significant to study the survival of these patients, as a second primary lesion will have different survival compared to that of recurrent lesions.  相似文献   
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Background

Obesity is a risk factor for acetabular component malposition when total hip arthroplasty is performed with manual techniques. The utility of imageless navigation in obese patients remains unknown. This study compared the accuracy and precision of imageless navigation for component orientation between obese and nonobese patients.

Methods

A total of 459 total hip arthroplasties performed for osteoarthritis using imageless navigation were reviewed from a single surgeon’s institutional review board–approved database. Einzel-Bild-Roentgen Analyse determined component orientation on 6-week postoperative anteroposterior radiographs. Mean orientation error (accuracy) and precision were compared between obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and nonobese patients. Regression analysis evaluated the influence of obesity on component position.

Results

The difference in mean inclination and anteversion between obese and nonobese groups was 1.1° (43.0° ± 3.5°; range, 35.8°-57.8° vs 41.9° ± 4.4°; range, 33.0°-57.1° and 24.9° ± 6.3°; range, 14.2°-44.3° vs 23.8° ± 6.6°; range, 7.0°-38.6°, respectively). Inclination precision was better for nonobese patients. No difference in inclination accuracy or anteversion accuracy or precision was detected between groups. And 83% of components were placed within the target range. There was no relationship between obesity (dichotomized) and component placement outside the target ranges for inclination, anteversion, or both. As a continuous variable, increased body mass index correlated with higher odds of inclination outside the target zone (odds ratio, 1.06; P = .001).

Conclusion

Using imageless navigation, inclination orientation was less precise for obese patients, but the observed difference is likely not clinically relevant. Accurate superficial registration of landmarks in obese patients is achievable, and the use of imageless navigation similarly improves acetabular component positioning in obese and nonobese patients.

Level of Evidence

Therapeutic Level IV.  相似文献   
8.
The patellar ligament (PL) is an epiphyseal ligament and is part of the extensor complex of the knee. The ligament has gained attention due to its clinical relevance to autograft and tendinopathy. A variety of anatomical variations of the PL such as aplasia, numerical variations, and vascularity are being reported recently by clinicians and anatomists. The aim of this literature was to review the available literature to provide a consensus regarding anatomic variations of the PL, neurovasculature surrounding the PL, histology of the PL, and various aspects of PL measurements with relevance to the surgical considerations and sex and age-related differences. A narrative review of the patellar ligament was performed by conducting a detailed literature search and review of relevant articles. A total of 90 articles on the patellar ligament were included and were categorized into studies based on anatomical variations, neurovasculature, morphometrics, microanatomy, sex and age-related difference, and ACL reconstruction. The anatomical variations and morphometrics of the PL were found to correlate with the frequency of strain injuries, tendinopathy, and efficacy of the PL autograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The sex differences in PL measurements and the effect of estrogen on collagen synthesis explained a higher incidence of patellar tendinopathy in women. An awareness of its variations enables careful selection of surgical incisions, thereby avoiding complications related to nerve injury. Accurate knowledge of the PL microanatomy assists in understanding the mechanism of ligament degeneration, rupture, autograft harvesting, and ligamentization results.  相似文献   
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