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背景 孕产妇尿失禁(UI)发病率高,严重影响了女性生活质量。研究表明,盆底肌训练是UI有效的防治手段,本研究前期进行了一项随机对照试验(RCT),结果发现相比于常规宣教,基于移动医疗APP的盆底肌训练并未显现出预防优势,其原因需要进一步深入探讨。 目的 本研究拟对一项基于APP的妊娠期盆底肌训练的干预研究的阴性结果进行探索性分析,旨在探讨产后UI预防效果的影响因素以及获益的亚组人群。 方法 本研究数据来源于前期开展的一项RCT,采用方便抽样法,于2020年6—10月在南方医科大学深圳医院产科门诊招募了126例研究对象,采用随机数字表法分为干预组与对照组,每组各63例。对照组采用常规护理,干预组在此基础上使用"有爱屋"APP进行尿失禁自我管理,干预周期为2个月。产后42 d随访时收集两组产后相关资料,包括产后42 d UI发生情况。以产后是否发生UI为结局指标,将研究对象分为病例组和对照组,采用Logistic回归分析探讨混杂因素及其与干预方式之间的交互作用对产后UI发生的影响。针对Logistic回归分析的结果进行分层分析,探讨是否存在能从APP干预中获益的亚组人群。 结果 病例组和对照组阴道分娩史、入组时存在UI、Broome盆底肌自我效能量表(BPMSES)得分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。Logistic回归分析结果显示,入组时存在UI是产后发生UI的危险因素〔OR=15.897,95%CI(4.724,53.495),P<0.001〕;BPMSES得分与干预方式的交互作用可影响产后UI的发生〔OR=1.034,95%CI(1.017,1.051),P<0.001〕。分层分析结果显示,入组时存在UI症状的孕妇,干预组产后UI发生率低于对照组(χ2=4.18,P=0.041);入组时不存在UI症状的孕妇,两组产后UI发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(χ2=1.89,P=0.284)。 结论 推荐有UI症状的孕妇使用"有爱屋"APP或许可预防产后UI的发生。而对于妊娠期没有UI症状的人群使用"有爱屋"APP预防产后UI发生的证据尚不充分。另外,不管有无UI症状,盆底肌训练自我效能高的孕妇有望从APP干预中获益。  相似文献   
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Monitoring variations in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system may help personalize training of runners and provide more pronounced physiological adaptations and performance improvements. We systematically reviewed the scientific literature comparing physiological adaptations and/or improvements in performance following training based on responses of the autonomic nervous system (ie, changes in heart rate variability) and predefined training. PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science were searched systematically in July 2019. Keywords related to endurance, running, autonomic nervous system, and training. Studies were included if they (a) involved interventions consisting predominantly of running training; (b) lasted at least 3 weeks; (c) reported pre- and post-intervention assessment of running performance and/or physiological parameters; (d) included an experimental group performing training adjusted continuously on the basis of alterations in HRV and a control group; and (e) involved healthy runners. Five studies involving six interventions and 166 participants fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Four HRV-based interventions reduced the amount of moderate- and/or high-intensity training significantly. In five interventions, improvements in performance parameters (3000 m, 5000 m, Loadmax, Tlim) were more pronounced following HRV-based training. Peak oxygen uptake () and submaximal running parameters (eg, LT1, LT2) improved following both HRV-based and predefined training, with no clear difference in the extent of improvement in . Submaximal running parameters tended to improve more following HRV-based training. Research findings to date have been limited and inconsistent. Both HRV-based and predefined training improve running performance and certain submaximal physiological adaptations, with effects of the former training tending to be greater.  相似文献   
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《Surgery (Oxford)》2020,38(10):596-600
Improving Surgical Training is a programme piloting an innovative, evidence-based approach to training. It was developed in response to the Shape of Training report which reviewed postgraduate training and recommended changes in medical education to meet the demands of the modern NHS. A series of initiatives have been developed to enhance the experience for surgical trainees not only to encourage a more focussed and supported method, but also to improve their job satisfaction. The initiatives have combined a greater emphasis on time for training provided by trainers with allocated time for training with multidisciplinary teamworking and the use of technology enhanced learning with simulation of both technical and non-technical skills. The pilot started in 2018 with core training in general surgery and has been expanded to include vascular surgery, urology and trauma and orthopaedics over the last 2 years. Initial feedback from both trainees, trainers and schools of surgery have identified different challenges to aid implementation. The programme is being very carefully evaluated by an independent company as well as careful oversight by the General Medical Council which are paramount to its success.  相似文献   
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目的调查镇江市各医院护士分层培训及分层进阶的方法及现状。方法2018年4—5月间采用自行设计的调查问卷,对全市医院的护理人员进行随机抽样调查。结果调查显示镇江市96.45%的护士受医院分层培训及分层进阶这一模式的管理。其中N1占16.77%,N2占29.5%,N3占41.9%,N4占8.7%,其他占3.11%。有24.53%的护士对医院目前的分层培训方式感到满意并认为无需改进,40.99%的护士表示满意,但需要改进,29.19%的护士表示基本满意,需要改进,5.28%的护士表示不满意需要较大改进。95.82%的医院科室对不用层级的护士有不同的核心能力要求并根据不同核心能力要求进行培训。结论护士分层培训几分层进阶这一管理模式在镇江各医院都有体现,但各医院实行的方式有较大差异,配套的管理方式也有待完善。  相似文献   
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Core executive functions (EF) such as attention, and working memory have been strongly associated with academic achievement, language development and behavioral stability. In the case of children who are vulnerable to cognitive and learning problems because of an underlying intellectual disability, EF difficulties will likely exacerbate an already compromised cognitive system. The current review examines cognitive training programs that aim to improve EF, specifically focusing on the potential of this type of intervention for children who have intellectual disabilities. We conclude that despite considerable discrepancies regarding reported intervention effects, these inconsistencies can be attributed to flaws in both program and study design. We discuss the steps needed to address these limitations and to facilitate the advancement of non-pharmaceutical interventions for children with intellectual disabilities.  相似文献   
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PurposeThis study describes the job market from the perspective of recent pediatric surgery graduates.MethodsAn anonymous survey was circulated to the 137 pediatric surgeons who graduated from fellowships 2019–2021.ResultsThe survey response rate was 49%. The majority of respondents were women (52%), Caucasian (72%), and had a median student debt burden of $225,000. Considering job opportunities, respondents strongly emphasized camaraderie (93%), mentorship (93%), case mix (85%), geography (67%), faculty reputation (62%), spousal employment (57%), compensation (51%), and call frequency (45%). 30% were satisfied with the employment opportunities available, and 21% felt strongly prepared to negotiate for their first job. All respondents were able to secure a job. Most jobs were university-based (70%) or hospital employed (18%) positions where surgeons covered median of two hospitals. 49% wanted protected research time, and 12% of respondents were able to secure substantial, protected research time. The median compensation for university-based jobs was $12,583 below the median AAMC benchmark for assistant professors for the corresponding year of graduation.ConclusionThese data highlight the ongoing need for assessment of the pediatric surgery workforce and for professional societies and training programs to further assist graduating fellows in preparing to negotiate their first job.Type of studySurveyLevel of EvidenceLevel V.  相似文献   
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