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1.
痛情绪是指因疼痛引发的情绪和情感体验,是疾病过程中最常见的一种情绪。痛情绪相关神经机制非常复杂,但主要与单胺类神经递质、神经肽和某些神经环路有关,笔者将结合目前研究现状分别从以上两方面展开,就痛情绪相关单胺类神经递质和神经肽在受体分类、脑区通路、共疾病以及各神经递质之间的联系和痛情绪相关神经环路中各个蛋白的作用机制等方面进行探讨。  相似文献   
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BackgroundRhythmic joint mobilizations (RJM) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are employed to relieve pain and improve function in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the evidence on the immediate effects of RJM in patients with TMD is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate clinical and functional effects of RJM in patients with TMD.Materials and methodsThis was a one-group quasi-experimental before and after study. Thirty-eight patients with TMD were assessed by means of pain intensity (visual analogue score, VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT, measured through pressure algometry on the masseter and temporal muscles), mouth opening (MO, measured with a ruler), and surface electromyographic activity of the masseter and temporal muscles (asymmetry index, AI). Measurements were performed before and after a single, 1-min session of RJM of each TMJ. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS version 20.0 statistical package.ResultsA statistical significant difference was found in pain intensity, PPT and MO after the intervention (p < 0.05). No difference was found in the AI. A large effect size was observed for pain intensity, PPT of the left and right masseter muscles and MO (d = 0.85–1.13), whereas for the left and right temporal muscles the effect size was moderate (d = 0.62) and small, respectively (d = 0.49).ConclusionIn this sample of patients with TMD, a single session of RJM of the TMJ seemed to be effective in reducing pain intensity, increasing PPT and improving MO immediately after the intervention, without differences in the AI.  相似文献   
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《The ocular surface》2020,18(1):108-113
PurposeAromatase inhibitors (AIs) limit the synthesis of oestrogen in peripheral tissues thus lowering levels of oestrogen. The primary aim was to evaluate whether women treated with AIs have altered dry eye symptoms and signs. A sub-aim was to investigate whether symptoms of dry eye in postmenopausal women were associated with symptoms of non-eye pain, ocular pain and self-rated pain perception.MethodsThis cross-sectional, observational, single visit study recruited 56 postmenopausal women (mean age 64.1 + 7.9 years) and 52 undergoing AI treatment (mean age 66.6 + 9.0). Ocular symptoms (OSDI, MGD14) and pain questionnaires (PSQ, OPAS) were administered and signs of dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction were evaluated.ResultsAlmost half of each group reported dry eye symptoms, defined as OSDI>12 (48% control, 46% AI). The PSQ score was significantly higher in the AI group (p = 0.04). Neither frequency or severity of dry eye (or MGD) symptoms scores were significantly different between groups. In the AI group, meibomian gland expressibility score was worse (p = 0.003); there were no differences in any other signs. Higher OSDI scores were associated with higher OPAS eye-pain scores (r = 0.49, p < 0.001), but not OPAS non-eye pain (r = 0.09, p = 0.35). Pain perception (PSQ) showed a moderate positive association with OPAS eye-pain (r = 0.30, p = 0.003).ConclusionsIn this study elevated ocular symptoms were observed in both the AI treated and the untreated groups, with no difference between the groups. Women undergoing AI treatment for early stage breast cancer had worse meibum expressibility score and increased pain perception compared to an untreated group of women.  相似文献   
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《Clinical neurophysiology》2021,132(12):3104-3115
ObjectiveWe aimed to establish an objective neurophysiological test protocol that can be used to assess the somatosensory nervous system.MethodsIn order to assess most fiber subtypes of the somatosensory nervous system, repetitive stimuli of seven different modalities (touch, vibration, pinprick, cold, contact heat, laser, and warmth) were synchronized with the electroencephalogram (EEG) and applied on the cheek and dorsum of the hand and dorsum of the foot in 21 healthy subjects and three polyneuropathy (PNP) patients. Latencies and amplitudes of the modalities were assessed and compared. Patients received quantitative sensory testing (QST) as reference.ResultsWe found reproducible evoked potentials recordings for touch, vibration, pinprick, contact-heat, and laser stimuli. The recording of warm-evoked potentials was challenging in young healthy subjects and not applicable in patients. Latencies were shortest within Aβ-fiber-mediated signals and longest within C-fibers. The test protocol detected function loss within the Aβ-fiber and Aδ-fiber-range in PNP patients. This function loss corresponded with QST findings.ConclusionIn this pilot study, we developed a neurophysiological test protocol that can specifically assess most of the somatosensory modalities. Despite technical challenges, initial patient data appear promising regarding a possible future clinical application.SignificanceEstablished and custom-made stimulators were combined to assess different fiber subtypes of the somatosensory nervous system using modality-specific evoked potentials.  相似文献   
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ObjectiveTo verify if the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain worsening would be mediated by muscle weakness and disability in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study in a hospital out-patient setting. Convenience sampling was used with a total of 50 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Pain and the activities of daily livings (ADL) were assessed using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscale. Pain catastrophizing was assessed using the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (CSQ) subscale. Muscle strength of knee extension and 30-s chair stand test (30CST) were also assessed. Path analysis was performed to test the hypothetical model. Goodness of fit of models were assessed by using statistical parameters such as the chi-square value, goodness of fit index (GFI), adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI), comparative fit index (CFI), and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA).ResultsThe chi-square values were not significant (chi-square = 0.283, p = 0.594), and the indices of goodness of fit were high, implying a valid model (GFI = 1.000; AGFI = 0.997; CFI = 1.000; RMSEA = 0.000). Pain was influenced significantly by muscle strength and ADL; muscle strength was influenced significantly by ADL via 30CST; ADL was influenced by pain catastrophizing.ConclusionThe relationship between pain catastrophizing with pain worsening are mediated by muscle weakness and disability.  相似文献   
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《Vaccine》2022,40(52):7526-7537
BackgroundInjection-related pain and fear are common adverse reactions in children undergoing vaccination and influence vaccine acceptance. Despite the large body of literature on sources of vaccine non-compliance, there is no estimate of the prevalence of pain and fear as contributing factors. The objective was to estimate the prevalence of injection pain or fear of needles as barriers to childhood (i.e., 0–18 years) vaccination.MethodsFour databases were searched from inception for relevant English and French articles until August 2021. In addition, the references of recent systematic reviews and all articles included in the review were hand searched. Article screening and data extractions were performed in duplicate. Studies were included if they reported on injection-related pain or fear of needles in children (0–18 years) using a checklist/closed-ended question(s). Results were stratified by respondent (parents or children), type of pediatric population (general or under-vaccinated), and relative importance of barrier (pain or needle fear as primary reason or any reason for under-vaccination). Prevalence rates of pain or needle fear were combined using a random effects model. Quality of included studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for prevalence data. Quality across studies was assessed using GRADE.ResultsThere were 26 studies with 45 prevalence estimates published between 1995 and 2021. For parent reports (of children) and children self-reported reasons for non-compliance, prevalence rates of pain or needle fear ranged from 5 to 13% in a general population and 8 to 28% in an under-vaccinated population, with a substantial variation in the prevalence estimates. There was no difference between category of respondent or relative importance on pain or needle fear prevalence rate. A regression model demonstrated an overall prevalence rate of pain or needle fear as an obstacle to vaccination of 8% in the general population and 18.3% in the under-vaccinated population. All evidence was very low in quality.ConclusionThis is the first review to systematically quantify the prevalence and therefore, importance, of pain and needle fear as obstacles to vaccination in children around the world. Pain from injection or fear of needles were demonstrated to be sufficiently prevalent as barriers to vaccination in children to warrant attention. Addressing pain and fear has the potential to significantly improve vaccination acceptance.  相似文献   
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IntroductionPain is highly prevalent in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); it is chronic in 50% of cases and is classified as nociceptive, neuropathic, or mixed-type. Pain affects quality of life, sleep, and the activities of daily living. Electrotherapy is an interesting alternative or complementary treatment in the management of pain in MS, with new innovations constantly appearing.Material and methodsThis study evaluates the effectiveness of treatment with monopolar dielectric transmission of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) for pain associated with MS. We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial including 24 patients, who were assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale.ResultsStatistically significant improvements were observed in maximum and mean pain scores, as well as in the impact of pain on work, personal relationships, and sleep and rest. Not significant differences were found between the treatment and placebo groups.ConclusionsTreatment with PEMF may be effective in reducing pain in patients with MS, although further research is necessary to confirm its effectiveness over placebo and to differentiate which type of pain may be more susceptible to this treatment.  相似文献   
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