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The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical course of masticatory function recovery following arthrocentesis. Patients with a unilateral condylar head fracture who underwent arthrocentesis for therapeutic reasons were evaluated and compared with patients with a unilateral condylar head fracture who did not undergo arthrocentesis. At 3 months after treatment, the occlusal contact area and maximum bite force in patients with a fracture treated with arthrocentesis were greater than in those who did not receive arthrocentesis at the same time points, although the differences were not significant. Moreover, at 1 and 3 months following arthrocentesis, mean (±SD) occlusal contact area (1 month: 1.99 ± 0.55 mm2, p = 0.01; 3 months: 2.90 ± 1.36 mm2, p = 0.03) and maximum bite force (1 month: 82.45 ± 15.04 N, p = 0.01; 3 months: 101.11 ± 14.53 N, p = 0.01) on the fractured side in patients who underwent that treatment were significantly reduced when compared with those on the non-fractured side. The authors conclude that if the priority is to avoid open reduction and internal fixation, then the arthrocentesis approach might be a less invasive alternative, albeit with the price of a prolonged healing interval.  相似文献   
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儿童处于生长发育特殊阶段,其颌面部解剖结构、牙列情况及心理状态与成年人有明显区别。颌面部骨折患儿常出现面部发育畸形、张口受限、咬合关系紊乱等,严重影响患儿的日常生活。因此,儿童颌面部骨折的诊疗一直是临床上的难题,也是国内外的研究热点。颌面部骨折好发于青少年,损伤原因多为意外跌倒、交通伤及运动伤。近年来,数字化外科技术为儿童颌面部骨折提供精确的诊断及微创的治疗。国内外学者对于儿童颌面部骨折治疗理念逐渐倾向于手术治疗,选择可吸收材料对儿童颌面部骨折进行固定,降低对儿童面部发育的影响。长期随访对于儿童颌面部骨折患儿具有重要意义,有助于监测患儿面部发育情况。此外,临床医生应注意患儿的心理状态。对于创伤较重或发现有心理问题的患儿,应尽早干预治疗。文章就近年儿童颌面部骨折流行病学特点、诊断、治疗原则及伴发的心理问题做一综述。  相似文献   
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《Seminars in Arthroplasty》2022,32(4):681-687
BackgroundThe objective of this study was to compare complication rates between patients undergoing reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) after a prior open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for proximal humerus fracture (PHF) to those undergoing RSA as a primary treatment for PHFs, glenohumeral osteoarthritis, or rotator cuff tear arthropathy (CTA).MethodsPatients who underwent RSA between 2015 and 2020 were identified in the Mariner database. Patients were separated into 3 mutually exclusive groups: (1) RSA for osteoarthritis, rotator cuff tear, or CTA (Control-RSA); (2) RSA as a primary treatment for PHF (PHF-RSA); and (3) RSA for patients with prior ORIF of PHFs (ORIF-RSA). Ninety-day medical and 2-year postoperative surgical complications were identified. In addition, patients in the PHF-RSA group were subdivided into those undergoing RSA for PHF within 3 months of the fracture (acute) vs. those treated greater than 3 months from diagnosis (delayed). Multivariate regression was performed to control for differences in comorbidities and demographics.ResultsA total of 30,824 patients underwent primary RSA for arthritis or CTA, 5389 patients underwent RSA as a primary treatment for a PHF, and 361 patients underwent RSA after ORIF of a PHF. ORIF before RSA was associated with an increased risk of overall revision (odds ratio [OR] 2.45, P = .002), infection (OR 2.40, P < .001), instability (OR 2.43, P < .001), fracture (OR 3.24, P = .001), minor medical complications (OR 1.59, P = .008), and readmission (OR 2.55, P = .001) compared with the Control-RSA cohort. RSA as a primary treatment for PHF was associated with an increased risk of 2-year revision (OR 1.60, P < .001), infection (OR 1.51, P < .001), instability (OR 2.84, P < .001), and fracture (OR 2.54, P < .001) in addition to major medical complications (OR 2.02, P < .001), minor medical complications (OR 1.92, P < .001), 90-day emergency department visits (OR 1.26, P < .001) and 90-day readmission (OR 2.03, P < .001) compared with the Control-RSA cohort. The ORIF-RSA group had an increased risk of periprosthetic infection (OR 1.94, P = .002) when compared with the PHF-RSA cohort. There were no differences in medical or surgical complications in the RSA-PHF cohort between patients treated in an acute or delayed fashion.ConclusionRSA following ORIF of a PHF is associated with increased complications compared with patients undergoing RSA for nonfracture indications. Prior ORIF of a PHF is also an independent risk factor for postoperative infection after RSA compared with patients who undergo RSA as a primary operation for fracture. The timing of RSA as a primary operation for PHF does not appear to impact the rates of postoperative medical and surgical complications.  相似文献   
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目的对比动力髋螺钉(dynamic hip screw,DHS)治疗和股骨近端抗旋髓内钉(proximal femoral nail anti-rotation,PFNA)固定治疗老年股骨粗隆间骨折疗效。方法纳入本院收治的45例采用PFNA固定治疗的老年股骨粗隆间骨折患者作为研究组,研究时间为2017年11月-2018年11月;回顾性分析2016年11月-2017年11月在我院采用DHS治疗的45例老年股骨粗隆间骨折患者的临床资料,作为对照组。记录两组的相关手术指标,观察手术并发症情况。结果研究组的手术时间和骨折愈合时间均短于对照组,术中出血量明显少于对照组,术后疼痛VAS评分均明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。对照组的并发症发生率高于研究组(P<0.05)。结论PFNA固定治疗比DHS治疗老年股骨粗隆间骨折更加安全有效,值得临床借鉴和应用。  相似文献   
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Introduction

Compression fractures of the cuboid bone in children and adolescents are rare. Fracture morphology, associated lesions, treatment options and long-term outcomes of this very rare injury are published in a few case reports. This study with review of the literature aims to support the understanding of fracture pattern and optimize pathways of decision making.

Material and Methods

A retrospective two-center study was performed in a patient cohort treated between 2001 and 2016. All patients aged less than 18 years who sustained a cuboid fracture were included. Age, gender, mechanism of injury, fracture morphology, amount of displacement, associated injuries, and therapy were analyzed. In the follow-up (FU), the AOFAS Midfoot Scale was investigated.

Results

Fractures of the cuboid bone were diagnosed in 7 boys and 9 girls. The mean age of the patients was 10 years (range: 2.2–16.1 years). According to the classification of Fenton we detected 11 (69%) type 2, 2 (12%) type 3 and 3 (19%) type 5b fractures. Other fracture types according to Fenton were not observed. All children under 10 years sustained a type 2 fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed in 5 (31%) patients. Bone grafting was not necessary. FU was performed in 14/16 patients on average after 9 years (mean; range: 1.4–16.2 years). The mean AOFAS Midfoot Scale at FU for extra-articular type 2 fractures was 100 points, whereas in intra-articular fractures (Type 3) and fractures associated with mid-tarsal disruption (type 5b) worse results were found (95 and 66 points, accordingly).

Conclusion

This rare injury shows inhomogenous morphologies and offers different treatment approaches. Extra-articular Fenton type 2 lesions are the most common type of cuboid fracture in children (69%). A potential loss of length of the lateral column must be considered. In contrast to adults, type 1, 4, and 5a fractures were not found in our cohort of children and adolescents. Lower scores of the AOFAS Midfoot Scale were found with either intra-articular involvement or associated midfoot lesions.  相似文献   
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骨质疏松症是常见的骨骼疾病,绝经后女性为骨质疏松症的高危人群。骨折风险评价工具(fracture risk assessment tool,FRAX?)是一款研究、应用广泛的骨折风险评估工具。近年来研究表明,虽然FRAX?尚不完美,但对女性人群的骨折具有合理的预测能力,结合其他骨折危险因素对该工具进行调整、改进的研究也多见报道。设立符合本国国情的FRAX?阈值有助于医生更好地使用该工具和进行临床决策。美国设立了固定的FRAX?阈值,英国则是按年龄分层的阈值。国内对FRAX?的研究尚处于初级阶段,暂无特异的干预阈值,这在一定程度上阻碍了该工具在我国的推广使用。笔者回顾了国内外FRAX?对女性骨质疏松性骨折的预测能力、骨量异常的诊断能力、在合并其他疾病的女性人群中的应用和干预阈值的研究等最新成果,为临床医生了解FRAX?的研究进展、探索针对我国人群干预阈值奠定基础。  相似文献   
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