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The progress of modern medicine would be impossible without the use of general anesthetics (GAs). Despite advancements in refining anesthesia approaches, the effects of GAs are not fully reversible upon GA withdrawal. Neurocognitive deficiencies attributed to GA exposure may persist in neonates or endure for weeks to years in the elderly. Human studies on the mechanisms of the long-term adverse effects of GAs are needed to improve the safety of general anesthesia but they are hampered not only by ethical limitations specific to human research, but also by a lack of specific biological markers that can be used in human studies to safely and objectively study such effects. The latter can primarily be attributed to an insufficient understanding of the full range of the biological effects induced by GAs and the molecular mechanisms mediating such effects even in rodents, which are far more extensively studied than any other species. Our most recent experimental findings in rodents suggest that GAs may adversely affect many more people than is currently anticipated. Specifically, we have shown that anesthesia with the commonly used GA sevoflurane induces in exposed animals not only neuroendocrine abnormalities (somatic effects), but also epigenetic reprogramming of germ cells (germ cell effects). The latter may pass the neurobehavioral effects of parental sevoflurane exposure to the offspring, who may be affected even at levels of anesthesia that are not harmful to the exposed parents. The large number of patients who require general anesthesia, the even larger number of their future unexposed offspring whose health may be affected, and a growing number of neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown etiology underscore the translational importance of investigating the intergenerational effects of GAs. In this mini review, we discuss emerging experimental findings on neuroendocrine, epigenetic, and intergenerational effects of GAs.  相似文献   
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Background

Arterial vascular anomalies in patients undergoing kidney transplantation (KT) are correlated with a higher incidence of early surgical complications, potentially causing graft loss. Arterial reconstruction allows patients to overcome these surgical challenges, thus minimizing the risk of poor outcomes. The aim of the present study is to retrospectively investigate the safety and effectiveness of the multiple arterial reconstruction technique with a Teflon patch in case of an unavailable aortic patch: to do so, surgical complications, graft function, and patient survival were evaluated.

Methods

During the period January 2009 to August 2016, 202 adult deceased-donor KTs were performed at our center. Group A (n = 27; reconstruction of multiple arteries) and Group B (n = 175; control group) were compared.

Results

No differences were observed between the 2 groups in terms of early postoperative course, with no vascular complication observed in Group A. No vascular patch infections were reported, nor longer cold ischemia time rates. Similarly, long-term survival rates were similar between the 2 groups.

Conclusions

The Teflon-patch arterial reconstruction technique appears to be safe and effective, with an acceptable balance of benefits and potential risks of using a prosthetic material. Studies based on larger series are needed to further validate this approach.  相似文献   
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目的:研究全麻复合硬膜外在高龄患者腹腔镜直肠癌根治术中的应用效果。方法:选择60岁以上择期行腹腔镜直肠癌根治术患者60例,随机分为G组和GA组,每组各30例。G组患者为单纯全麻组,GA组患者为硬膜外复合全麻组。GA组患者在诱导前取L1~2硬膜外穿刺置管,予0.5%罗哌卡因5 ml,术中每小时追加5~7 ml。两组患者诱导方法相同:即,咪哒唑仑0.04 mg/kg、舒芬太尼0.3~0.4μg/kg、顺阿曲库铵0.15~0.20 mg/kg、依托咪酯0.2~0.3 mg/kg。监测并记录患者血压(BP),心率(HR),心电图(ECG),术中全麻药用量及术后患者苏醒情况。结果:GA组患者气腹后、拔管前BP、HR明显低于G组(P<0.05),且全麻药用量明显低于G组(P<0.05)。结论:全麻复合硬膜外应用于老年腹腔镜直肠癌手术较单纯全麻用药量减少,术中循环更加稳定,是腹腔镜直肠癌根治术比较安全可行的麻醉方法。  相似文献   
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罗晓  何茜  李海冰  涂丽  张海玲  穆琼 《中国全科医学》2022,25(25):3184-3190
背景 我国基层全科医生的离职意愿较高,调查其离职意愿并分析影响因素,可以为减少基层卫生人才流失提供思路。目前,完成"5+3"模式(5年临床医学本科教育+3年住院医师规范化培训)培养的订单定向医学毕业生逐步履约进入基层工作,而针对该部分全科医生离职意向的研究相对较少。 目的 调查贵州省"5+3"模式订单定向医学毕业生回归基层工作后的离职意愿及影响因素,为完善吸引卫生人才留任、建设基层全科医生队伍相关政策提供依据。 方法 以贵州省截至2020年底已完成"5+3"模式培养并履约到基层医疗卫生机构工作的2015—2017级订单定向医学毕业生为研究对象。于2021-01-20至2021-02-10对其开展电子问卷调查,内容包括毕业生的一般情况、职业满意度、离职意愿、服务期满后职业方向。共回收问卷347份,其中有效问卷311份,问卷有效回收率为89.6%。采用单因素分析及多元逐步线性回归分析全科医生离职意愿的影响因素。 结果 贵州省"5+3"订单定向医学毕业生的整体离职意愿得分为(3.98±0.98)分,具有离职倾向者229例(73.6%)。不同性别、单位地理位置、每日工作量者的离职意愿得分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。多元逐步线性回归分析显示,单位负责人对待下属的方式、在工作中获得的成就感、对当前收入满意程度、家人对工作的支持程度、当地激励政策执行程度是"5+3"订单定向医学毕业生离职意愿的影响因素(P<0.05)。服务期满后,计划留任原基层医疗卫生机构者12例(3.9%),计划去其他基层医疗卫生机构者21例(6.7%),计划离开基层去上级医院工作者196例(63.0%),计划攻读全日制硕士学位者60例(19.3%)。 结论 贵州省"5+3"模式订单定向医学毕业生的离职意愿较高,预计服务期满后基层全科人才流失较多,需从提高收入、重视全科医生心理需求、优化全科医生培养与使用、发展基层医疗卫生机构、加强全科宣传等方面着手改善。  相似文献   
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《Clinical neurophysiology》2019,130(8):1311-1319
ObjectiveUnder General Anesthesia (GA), age and Burst Suppression (BS) are associated with cognitive postoperative complications, yet how these parameters are related to per-operative EEG and hypnotic doses is unclear. In this prospective study, we address this question comparing age and BS occurrences with a new score (BPTIVA) based on Propofol doses, EEG and alpha-band power spectral densities, evaluated for SEF95 = 8–13 Hz.Methods59 patients (55 [34–67] yr, 67% female) undergoing neuroradiology or orthopedic surgery were included. Total IntraVenous Anesthesia was used for Propofol and analgesics infusion. Cerebral activity was monitored from a frontal electrodes montage EEG.ResultsBPTIVA was inversely correlated with age (Pearson r = −0.78, p < 0.001), and was significantly lower (p < 0.001) when BS occurred during the GA first minutes (induction). Additionally, the age-free BPTIVA score was better associated with BS at induction than age (AUC = 0.94 versus 0.82, p < 0.05).ConclusionWe designed BPTIVA score based on hypnotics and EEG. It was correlated with age yet was better associated to BS occurring during GA induction, the latter being a cerebral fragility sign.SignificanceThis advocate for an approach based on evaluating the cerebral physiological age (« brain age ») to predict postoperative cognitive evolution.  相似文献   
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